ACE2 (Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACE2 include Covid-19 and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Collagen chain trimerization and Peptide hormone metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and peptide binding. An important paralog of this gene is ACE. See more...

Aliases for ACE2 Gene

Aliases for ACE2 Gene

  • Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 2 3 5
  • Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A) 2 2 3
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Related Carboxypeptidase 3 4
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Homolog 3 4
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 3 4
  • ACE-Related Carboxypeptidase 3 4
  • Metalloprotease MPROT15 3 4
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A 2 3
  • ACEH 3 4
  • EC 3.4.17.23 4
  • EC 3.4.17.- 4
  • EC 3.4.17 51
  • ACE2 5

External Ids for ACE2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACE2 Gene

  • GC0XM015289
  • GC0XM014404
  • GC0XM014781
  • GC0XM014940
  • GC0XM015338
  • GC0XM015489
  • GC0XM013333
  • GC0XM015579
  • GC0XM015494

Summaries for ACE2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACE2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme family of dipeptidyl carboxydipeptidases and has considerable homology to human angiotensin 1 converting enzyme. This secreted protein catalyzes the cleavage of angiotensin I into angiotensin 1-9, and angiotensin II into the vasodilator angiotensin 1-7. The organ- and cell-specific expression of this gene suggests that it may play a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function, as well as fertility. In addition, the encoded protein is a functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronavirus HCoV-NL63 and the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 virus). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2020]

GeneCards Summary for ACE2 Gene

ACE2 (Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACE2 include Covid-19 and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Collagen chain trimerization and Peptide hormone metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and peptide binding. An important paralog of this gene is ACE.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ACE2 Gene

  • Essential counter-regulatory carboxypeptidase of the renin-angiotensin hormone system that is a critical regulator of blood volume, systemic vascular resistance, and thus cardiovascular homeostasis (PubMed:27217402). Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a nine-amino acid peptide with anti-hypertrophic effects in cardiomyocytes, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, which then acts as a beneficial vasodilator and anti-proliferation agent, counterbalancing the actions of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:10924499, PubMed:11815627, PubMed:19021774, PubMed:14504186). Also removes the C-terminal residue from three other vasoactive peptides, neurotensin, kinetensin, and des-Arg bradykinin, but is not active on bradykinin (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:11815627). Also cleaves other biological peptides, such as apelins (apelin-13, [Pyr1]apelin-13, apelin-17, apelin-36), casomorphins (beta-casomorphin-7, neocasomorphin) and dynorphin A with high efficiency (PubMed:11815627, PubMed:27217402, PubMed:28293165). In addition, ACE2 C-terminus is homologous to collectrin and is responsible for the trafficking of the neutral amino acid transporter SL6A19 to the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells via direct interaction, regulating its expression on the cell surface and its catalytic activity (PubMed:18424768, PubMed:19185582).
  • (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human coronaviruses SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, as well as human coronavirus NL63/HCoV-NL63.

Tocris Summary for ACE2 Gene

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, aka peptidyl dipeptidase A, carboxycathepsin) cleaves a C-terminal dipeptide from angiotensin I to create the vasoconstrictor peptide, angiotensin II. ACE can also inactivate the vasodilator, proinflammatory peptide, bradykinin.

Gene Wiki entry for ACE2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for ACE2 Gene

Genomics for ACE2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for ACE2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH0XJ015596 Promoter/Enhancer 1.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 600.7 +2.4 2447 7 GATAD2A RXRB CEBPA MNT SOX13 TCF7 CEBPB FOXA2 JUN MAFF ACE2 CLTRN PIR CA5BP1 CA5B GS1-594A7.3 lnc-ACE2-1 HNRNPDLP5 ENSG00000285602
GH0XJ015579 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 12.1 +21.7 21650 1.6 LEF1 IKZF1 JUND DPF2 HDAC1 SOX6 GATAD2B TCF12 EP300 CBX3 PIR ACE2 GS1-594A7.3 CLTRN lnc-ACE2-1 HNRNPDLP5 ENSG00000285602
GH0XJ015544 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl 11.6 +54.6 54571 5.2 IKZF1 JUND NR2C1 DPF2 TCF12 EP300 HMBOX1 CTBP1 ZBTB2 CEBPB PIR ACE2 GS1-594A7.3 HNRNPDLP5 RF00017-8173 BMX
GH0XJ015356 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 11.2 +245.5 245457 1 SP1 RBAK CEBPB FOXA2 YY1 JUND RAD21 HNF4A RXRA HLF PIGA ASB11 BMX PIR ACE2 GS1-594A7.3 piR-41405-154 VEGFD PIR-FIGF
GH0XJ015507 Promoter 0.4 EPDnew 10.8 +94.9 94867 0.1 CTCF BMX ACE2 GS1-594A7.3 PIR RF00017-8173
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ACE2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ACE2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ACE2 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • c-Fos
  • c-Jun
  • FOXO1
  • FOXO1a
  • GATA-1
  • IRF-2
  • MRF-2
  • Nkx2-5
  • YY1

Genomic Locations for ACE2 Gene

Genomic Locations for ACE2 Gene
chrX:15,561,033-15,602,158
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
41,126 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chrX:15,579,156-15,620,271
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
41,116 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for ACE2 Gene

Genes around ACE2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACE2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACE2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACE2 Gene

Proteins for ACE2 Gene

  • Protein details for ACE2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9BYF1-ACE2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9BYF1
    Secondary Accessions:
    • C7ECU1
    • Q6UWP0
    • Q86WT0
    • Q9NRA7
    • Q9UFZ6

    Protein attributes for ACE2 Gene

    Size:
    805 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    92463 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Cofactor:
    Name=chloride; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:17996;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer (PubMed:32132184). Interacts with ITGB1 (PubMed:15276642). Interacts with the catalytically active form of TMPRSS2 (PubMed:21068237). Interacts with SLC6A19; this interaction is essential for expression and function of SLC6A19 in intestine (By similarity).
    • (Microbial infection) Interacts with SARS coronavirus/SARS-CoV spike protein.
    • (Microbial infection) Interacts with SARS coronavirus-2/SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
    • (Microbial infection) Interacts with human coronavirus NL63/HCoV-NL63 spike glycoprotein.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACE2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACE2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for ACE2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ACE2 Gene

Q9BYF1:
  • PWTLALE
  • PHDETYCDPA
  • FLTAHHEMGHIQYDMAYA
  • ETEINFLLKQALTIVGTLPFTYMLEKWRWMVF
  • DQSIKVRISLKSALG
  • YFEPLFTWLK
  • LLRNGANEGFHEAVGEIMSLSAATP
  • VCHPTAWDLGKGDFRI
  • GCLPAHLLGDMWGRFWTNLY
  • WLLLSLVAV
  • MSTIYSTGK
  • DNSLEFLGI
  • DYGDYWRGDYE
  • QKPNIDVTDAM
  • YPSYISP
  • KWWEMKR
  • NPQECLLLEPGL
  • SFNFFVT
  • ASWNYNTNIT

Post-translational modifications for ACE2 Gene

  • N-glycosylation on Asn-90 may limit SARS infectivity.
  • Proteolytic cleavage by ADAM17 generates a secreted form (PubMed:15983030). Also cleaved by serine proteases: TMPRSS2, TMPRSS11D and HPN/TMPRSS1.
  • Glycosylation at Asn53, Asn90, Asn103, Asn322, Asn432, Asn546, and Asn690
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect

Other Protein References for ACE2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for ACE2 Gene

Gene Families for ACE2 Gene

IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for ACE2 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Peptidyl-dipeptidase A (M2) metalloprotease family signature
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACE2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Metalloprotease MPROT15 (ACE2_HUMAN)
  • Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (C7ECU1_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9BYF1

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ACE2_HUMAN :
  • The extracellular region of the ACE2 enzyme is composed of two domains. The first is a zinc metallopeptidase domain (residues 19-611). The second domain is located at the C-terminus (residues 612-740) and is 48% identical to human collectrin.
  • Belongs to the peptidase M2 family.
Domain:
  • The extracellular region of the ACE2 enzyme is composed of two domains. The first is a zinc metallopeptidase domain (residues 19-611). The second domain is located at the C-terminus (residues 612-740) and is 48% identical to human collectrin.
Family:
  • Belongs to the peptidase M2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACE2: view

Function for ACE2 Gene

Molecular function for ACE2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Essential counter-regulatory carboxypeptidase of the renin-angiotensin hormone system that is a critical regulator of blood volume, systemic vascular resistance, and thus cardiovascular homeostasis (PubMed:27217402). Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a nine-amino acid peptide with anti-hypertrophic effects in cardiomyocytes, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, which then acts as a beneficial vasodilator and anti-proliferation agent, counterbalancing the actions of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:10924499, PubMed:11815627, PubMed:19021774, PubMed:14504186). Also removes the C-terminal residue from three other vasoactive peptides, neurotensin, kinetensin, and des-Arg bradykinin, but is not active on bradykinin (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:11815627). Also cleaves other biological peptides, such as apelins (apelin-13, [Pyr1]apelin-13, apelin-17, apelin-36), casomorphins (beta-casomorphin-7, neocasomorphin) and dynorphin A with high efficiency (PubMed:11815627, PubMed:27217402, PubMed:28293165). In addition, ACE2 C-terminus is homologous to collectrin and is responsible for the trafficking of the neutral amino acid transporter SL6A19 to the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells via direct interaction, regulating its expression on the cell surface and its catalytic activity (PubMed:18424768, PubMed:19185582).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human coronaviruses SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, as well as human coronavirus NL63/HCoV-NL63.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=angiotensin II + H2O = angiotensin-(1-7) + L-phenylalanine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:26554, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58095, ChEBI:CHEBI:58506, ChEBI:CHEBI:58922; EC=3.4.17.23; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10924499, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19021774, ECO:0000305|PubMed:14504186};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=angiotensin I + H2O = angiotensin-(1-9) + L-leucine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63532, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:57427, ChEBI:CHEBI:147350, ChEBI:CHEBI:147351; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10924499, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10969042, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19021774};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=[des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin + H2O = [des-Phe(8), des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin + L-phenylalanine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63536, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58095, ChEBI:CHEBI:133069, ChEBI:CHEBI:147352; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10969042, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + neurotensin = L-leucine + neurotensin-(1-12); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63540, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:57427, ChEBI:CHEBI:147362, ChEBI:CHEBI:147363; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10969042};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + neurotensin-(1-8) = L-arginine + neurotensin-(1-7); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63572, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:32682, ChEBI:CHEBI:147393, ChEBI:CHEBI:147394; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + kinetensin = kinetensin-(1-8) + L-leucine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63544, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:57427, ChEBI:CHEBI:147364, ChEBI:CHEBI:147365; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10969042};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=dynorphin A-(1-13) + H2O = dynorphin A-(1-12) + L-lysine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63556, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:32551, ChEBI:CHEBI:147381, ChEBI:CHEBI:147383; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=apelin-13 + H2O = apelin-12 + L-phenylalanine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63564, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58095, ChEBI:CHEBI:147395, ChEBI:CHEBI:147396; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=[Pyr1]apelin-13 + H2O = [Pyr1]apelin-12 + L-phenylalanine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63604, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58095, ChEBI:CHEBI:147415, ChEBI:CHEBI:147416; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:27217402, ECO:0000269|PubMed:28293165};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=apelin-17 + H2O = apelin-16 + L-phenylalanine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63608, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58095, ChEBI:CHEBI:147421, ChEBI:CHEBI:147422; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:27217402};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=beta-casomorphin-7 + H2O = beta-casomorphin-6 + L-isoleucine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63568, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58045, ChEBI:CHEBI:147390, ChEBI:CHEBI:147391; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + neocasomorphin = L-isoleucine + neocasomorphin-(1-5); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63600, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58045, ChEBI:CHEBI:147417, ChEBI:CHEBI:147418; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated in failing heart.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=6.9 uM for angiotensin I {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=2.0 uM for angiotensin II {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=6.8 uM for apelin-13 {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=290 uM for [des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=130 uM for Lys-[des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=31 uM for beta-casomorphin {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=5.5 uM for dynorphin A-(1-13) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=300 uM for neurotensin-(1-8) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=58.6 uM for angiotensin II {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19021774}; KM=12 uM for [Pyr1]apelin-13 {ECO:0000269|PubMed:27217402}; KM=19 uM for apelin-17 {ECO:0000269|PubMed:27217402}; Vmax=28.7 nmol/min/mg enzyme with angiotensin II as substrate {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19021774}; Note=kcat is 0.034 sec(-1) with angiotensin I as substrate. kcat is 3.5 sec(-1) with angiotensin II as substrate. kcat is 13 sec(-1) with apelin-13 as substrate. kcat is 62 sec(-1) with [des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin as substrate. kcat is 26 sec(-1) with Lys-[des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin as substrate. kcat is 6.8 sec(-1) with beta-casomorphin as substrate. kcat is 16 sec(-1) with dynorphin A-(1-13) as substrate. kcat is 57 sec(-1) with neurotensin-(1-8) as substrate (PubMed:11815627). kcat is 19.1 sec(-1) with [Pyr1]apelin-13 as substrate. kcat is 7.7 sec(-1) with apelin-17 as substrate (PubMed:27217402). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627, ECO:0000269|PubMed:27217402}; pH dependence: Optimum pH is 6.5 in the presence of 1 M NaCl. Active from pH 6 to 9. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Regulated by chloride and fluoride, but not bromide (PubMed:11815627). Chloride increases angiotensin I and decreases angiotensin II cleavage (PubMed:19021774). Inhibited by MLN-4760, cFP_Leu, and EDTA (PubMed:15231706, PubMed:10924499), but not by the ACE inhibitors lisinopril, captopril and enalaprilat (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:10924499). Highly potent and selective in vitro ACE2 inhibitors were identified (PubMed:12358520).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACE2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001618 virus receptor activity IDA,IMP 24227843
GO:0004175 endopeptidase activity IDA 15283675
GO:0004180 carboxypeptidase activity IEA,IDA 10924499
GO:0004181 metallocarboxypeptidase activity EXP 10924499
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10969042
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACE2: view

Animal Models for ACE2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACE2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ACE2

CRISPR Products

miRNA for ACE2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACE2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ACE2

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACE2 Gene

Localization for ACE2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACE2 Gene

[Processed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2]: Secreted.
Cell membrane. Single-pass type I membrane protein. Cytoplasm. Note=Detected in both cell membrane and cytoplasm in neurons. {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:Q8R0I0}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACE2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,IDA 10969042
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA,IDA 18258853
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 18343844
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for ACE2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ACE2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACE2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for ACE2 Gene

Activates:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001817 regulation of cytokine production IC 15380922
GO:0002003 angiotensin maturation IC,TAS --
GO:0003051 angiotensin-mediated drinking behavior IMP 18258853
GO:0003081 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensin IMP 18258853
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view

Drugs & Compounds for ACE2 Gene

(54) Drugs for ACE2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Captopril Approved Pharma Inhibitor, Inhibition ACE inhibitor, ACE inhibitor; also inhibits LTA4 hydrolase 50
Hydroxychloroquine Approved Pharma Target, modulator Autophagy inhibitor 431
Angiotensin II Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist, Full agonist Potent vasopressor and a powerful stimulus for production and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. 1347
Vitamin C Approved Nutra 748,748
Lisinopril Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor ACE inhibitor 131

(5) Additional Compounds for ACE2 Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Benazepril hydrochloride
86541-74-4
Moexipril hydrochloride
82586-52-5

(5) Tocris Compounds for ACE2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Benazepril hydrochloride Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor 86541-74-4
Captopril ACE inhibitor; also inhibits LTA4 hydrolase 62571-86-2
Moexipril hydrochloride Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor 82586-52-5
Perindopril erbumine Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor 107133-36-8
Spinorphin Enkephalin-degrading and ACE inhibitor 137201-62-8

(6) ApexBio Compounds for ACE2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Acetyl Angiotensinogen (1-14), porcine Angiotensinogen precursor 66641-26-7
Angiotensin 1/2 (1-5) Vasoconstrictor 58442-64-1
Angiotensin 1/2 + A (2 - 8) 51833-76-2
Angiotensin I (human, mouse, rat) Precursor of angiotensin II 484-42-4
Enalaprilat Dihydrate 84680-54-6
Ramipril 87333-19-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACE2: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for ACE2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ACE2 Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
16 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
5 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ACE2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACE2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a ·
SP1:
SP2: -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -
SP5:
SP6: -

ExUns: 17b ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:

Relevant External Links for ACE2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ACE2

Expression for ACE2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for ACE2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACE2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x13.3), Testis (x7.7), and Heart - Left Ventricle (x6.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACE2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (30.4), Urine (19.6), and Pancreatic juice (14.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for ACE2 Gene



Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ACE2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACE2 Gene:

Hs.178098

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACE2 Gene:

Q9BYF1-ACE2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in endothelial cells from small and large arteries, and in arterial smooth muscle cells (at protein level) (PubMed:15141377). Expressed in lung alveolar epithelial cells, enterocytes of the small intestine, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells (at protein level) (PubMed:15141377). Expressed in the renal proximal tubule and the small intestine (at protein level) (PubMed:18424768). Expressed in heart, kidney, testis, and gastrointestinal system (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:10924499, PubMed:15231706, PubMed:12459472, PubMed:15671045).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACE2 Gene

  • Heart(4.7)
  • Lung(4.6)
  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Kidney(3.8)
  • Muscle(3.3)
  • Blood(3)
  • Gall bladder(2.7)
  • Intestine(2.7)
  • Urine(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2.2)
  • Adrenal gland(2.2)
  • Skin(2.1)
  • Stomach(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACE2: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACE2 Gene

Orthologs for ACE2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ACE2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACE2 30 31
  • 98.53 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACE2 30 31
  • 86.95 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACE2 30 31
  • 85.24 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ace2 30 17 31
  • 85.1 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ace2 30
  • 84.93 (n)
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACE2 31
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACE2 31
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACE2 30 31
  • 68.7 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACE2 31
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ace2 30
  • 64.56 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ace2 30 31
  • 61.1 (n)
OneToOne
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2478 30
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ance 31
  • 35 (a)
ManyToMany
Acer 31 32
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
Ance-2 32
  • 23 (a)
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea acn-1 30 31
  • 42.11 (n)
OneToMany
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 31
  • 21 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for ACE2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ACE2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ACE2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ACE2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ACE2: view image

Paralogs for ACE2 Gene

Paralogs for ACE2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for ACE2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • ACE2_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACE2: view

Variants for ACE2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for ACE2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 0X pos Variation AA Info Type
724557 Likely Benign: not provided 15,589,463(-) G/T INTRON_VARIANT
778980 Benign: not provided 15,566,297(-) A/G SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
780203 Likely Benign: not provided 15,600,835(-) T/C MISSENSE_VARIANT
rs183135788 - p.Asn638Ser
rs4646116 - p.Lys26Arg

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for ACE2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACE2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1125275 CNV insertion 24896259

Variation tolerance for ACE2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 49.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.61; 31.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ACE2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
ACE2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
ACE2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACE2 Gene

Disorders for ACE2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(27) MalaCards diseases for ACE2 Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
covid-19
  • 2019 novel coronavirus
severe acute respiratory syndrome
  • sars
coronavirus infectious disease
  • coronavirus infection
hartnup disorder
  • hnd
intracranial aneurysm
  • brain aneurysm
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACE2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ACE2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACE2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACE2 Gene

Publications for ACE2 Gene

  1. A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9. (PMID: 10969042) Donoghue M … Acton S (Circulation research 2000) 2 3 4 23
  2. Tissue-specific amino acid transporter partners ACE2 and collectrin differentially interact with hartnup mutations. (PMID: 19185582) Camargo SM … Verrey F (Gastroenterology 2009) 3 4 23
  3. Polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 are not associated with orthostatic blood pressure dysregulation in hypertensive patients. (PMID: 19684612) Fan XH … Hui RT (Acta pharmacologica Sinica 2009) 3 23 41
  4. Genetic variation in angiotensin-converting enzyme-related pathways associated with sudden cardiac arrest risk. (PMID: 19716087) Sotoodehnia N … Siscovick DS (Heart rhythm 2009) 3 23 41
  5. Residues affecting the chloride regulation and substrate selectivity of the angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE and ACE2) identified by site-directed mutagenesis. (PMID: 19021774) Rushworth CA … Turner AJ (The FEBS journal 2008) 3 4 23

Products for ACE2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for ACE2

Sources for ACE2 Gene