Aliases for ACE2 Gene
External Ids for ACE2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACE2 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme family of dipeptidyl carboxydipeptidases and has considerable homology to human angiotensin 1 converting enzyme. This secreted protein catalyzes the cleavage of angiotensin I into angiotensin 1-9, and angiotensin II into the vasodilator angiotensin 1-7. ACE2 is known to be expressed in various human organs, and its organ- and cell-specific expression suggests that it may play a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function, as well as fertility. In addition, the encoded protein is a functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronavirus HCoV-NL63 and the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, the latter is the causative agent of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Multiple splice variants have been found for this gene and the dACE2 (or MIRb-ACE2) splice variant has been found to be interferon inducible. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2020]
GeneCards Summary for ACE2 Gene
ACE2 (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACE2 include Covid-19 and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Among its related pathways are A-beta Pathways: Uptake and Degradation and Agents Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway, Pharmacodynamics. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and peptide binding. An important paralog of this gene is ACE.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ACE2 Gene
Essential counter-regulatory carboxypeptidase of the renin-angiotensin hormone system that is a critical regulator of blood volume, systemic vascular resistance, and thus cardiovascular homeostasis (PubMed:27217402). Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a nine-amino acid peptide with anti-hypertrophic effects in cardiomyocytes, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, which then acts as a beneficial vasodilator and anti-proliferation agent, counterbalancing the actions of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:10924499, PubMed:11815627, PubMed:19021774, PubMed:14504186). Also removes the C-terminal residue from three other vasoactive peptides, neurotensin, kinetensin, and des-Arg bradykinin, but is not active on bradykinin (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:11815627). Also cleaves other biological peptides, such as apelins (apelin-13, [Pyr1]apelin-13, apelin-17, apelin-36), casomorphins (beta-casomorphin-7, neocasomorphin) and dynorphin A with high efficiency (PubMed:11815627, PubMed:27217402, PubMed:28293165). In addition, ACE2 C-terminus is homologous to collectrin and is responsible for the trafficking of the neutral amino acid transporter SL6A19 to the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells via direct interaction, regulating its expression on the cell surface and its catalytic activity (PubMed:18424768, PubMed:19185582).
[Isoform 2]: Non-functional as a carboxypeptidase.
(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human coronaviruses SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, as well as human coronavirus NL63/HCoV-NL63.
[Isoform 2]: (Microbial infection) Non-functional as a receptor for human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
ACE2 is a single-pass, transmembrane protease enzyme that has high homology with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). It is the host cell receptor for several coronaviruses but also plays a role in the renin-angiotensin system where it inactivates angiotensin II by converting it to angiotensin 1-7.