ACE2 (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACE2 include Covid-19 and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Among its related pathways are A-beta Pathways: Uptake and Degradation and Agents Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway, Pharmacodynamics. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and peptide binding. An important paralog of this gene is ACE. See more...

Aliases for ACE2 Gene

Aliases for ACE2 Gene

  • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 2 3
  • Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 2 3 5
  • ACEH 2 3 4
  • Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A) 2 2 3
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Related Carboxypeptidase 3 4
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Homolog 3 4
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 3 4
  • ACE-Related Carboxypeptidase 3 4
  • Metalloprotease MPROT15 3 4
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A 2 3
  • Truncated Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 3
  • EC 3.4.17.23 4
  • EC 3.4.17.- 4
  • EC 3.4.17 50
  • ACE2 5

External Ids for ACE2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACE2 Gene

  • GC0XM015289
  • GC0XM014404
  • GC0XM014781
  • GC0XM014940
  • GC0XM015338
  • GC0XM015489
  • GC0XM013333
  • GC0XM015579
  • GC0XM015562

Summaries for ACE2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACE2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme family of dipeptidyl carboxydipeptidases and has considerable homology to human angiotensin 1 converting enzyme. This secreted protein catalyzes the cleavage of angiotensin I into angiotensin 1-9, and angiotensin II into the vasodilator angiotensin 1-7. ACE2 is known to be expressed in various human organs, and its organ- and cell-specific expression suggests that it may play a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function, as well as fertility. In addition, the encoded protein is a functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronavirus HCoV-NL63 and the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, the latter is the causative agent of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Multiple splice variants have been found for this gene and the dACE2 (or MIRb-ACE2) splice variant has been found to be interferon inducible. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2020]

GeneCards Summary for ACE2 Gene

ACE2 (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACE2 include Covid-19 and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. Among its related pathways are A-beta Pathways: Uptake and Degradation and Agents Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin System Pathway, Pharmacodynamics. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and peptide binding. An important paralog of this gene is ACE.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ACE2 Gene

  • Essential counter-regulatory carboxypeptidase of the renin-angiotensin hormone system that is a critical regulator of blood volume, systemic vascular resistance, and thus cardiovascular homeostasis (PubMed:27217402). Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a nine-amino acid peptide with anti-hypertrophic effects in cardiomyocytes, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, which then acts as a beneficial vasodilator and anti-proliferation agent, counterbalancing the actions of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:10924499, PubMed:11815627, PubMed:19021774, PubMed:14504186). Also removes the C-terminal residue from three other vasoactive peptides, neurotensin, kinetensin, and des-Arg bradykinin, but is not active on bradykinin (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:11815627). Also cleaves other biological peptides, such as apelins (apelin-13, [Pyr1]apelin-13, apelin-17, apelin-36), casomorphins (beta-casomorphin-7, neocasomorphin) and dynorphin A with high efficiency (PubMed:11815627, PubMed:27217402, PubMed:28293165). In addition, ACE2 C-terminus is homologous to collectrin and is responsible for the trafficking of the neutral amino acid transporter SL6A19 to the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells via direct interaction, regulating its expression on the cell surface and its catalytic activity (PubMed:18424768, PubMed:19185582).
  • [Isoform 2]: Non-functional as a carboxypeptidase.
  • (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human coronaviruses SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, as well as human coronavirus NL63/HCoV-NL63.
  • [Isoform 2]: (Microbial infection) Non-functional as a receptor for human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

Tocris Summary for ACE2 Gene

  • ACE2 is a single-pass, transmembrane protease enzyme that has high homology with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). It is the host cell receptor for several coronaviruses but also plays a role in the renin-angiotensin system where it inactivates angiotensin II by converting it to angiotensin 1-7.

Gene Wiki entry for ACE2 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for ACE2 Gene

Genomics for ACE2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for ACE2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH0XJ015596 Promoter/Enhancer 1.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 250.4 +7.6 7642 6.7 CEBPA CEBPB HOMEZ FOXA2 MAFF RXRA SMAD4 SAP130 RARA TEAD3 ACE2 CLTRN PIR CA5BP1 CA5B GS1-594A7.3 lnc-ACE2-1 HSALNG0136780 ENSG00000285602
GH0XJ015604 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 250.7 +1.0 977 4.5 MAFF ZNF316 MAFK ZNF48 PKNOX1 HIC1 EMSY ACE2 CLTRN GS1-594A7.3 ENSG00000285602 PIR
GH0XJ015579 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 12 +26.7 26728 1.6 IKZF1 NCOR1 NFIC TAF9B TAL1 NFE2 PRDM10 ATF1 STAT5A SMARCA4 PIR GS1-594A7.3 ACE2 CLTRN HSALNG0136780 HNRNPDLP5 ENSG00000285602
GH0XJ015544 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl 11.6 +59.6 59649 5.2 NCOR1 IKZF1 NFIC CEBPB TAL1 ZNF316 PRDM10 STAT5A ZBTB40 SMARCA4 HSALNG0136779 PIR ACE2 GS1-594A7.3 HSALNG0136777 BMX
GH0XJ015356 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 11.2 +250.5 250535 1 YY1 CEBPB FOXA2 RXRA JUND FOXA1 RAD21 HNF4A SP1 HLF PIGA ASB11 BMX PIR ACE2 GS1-594A7.3 piR-41405-154 VEGFD HSALNG0136772 PIR-FIGF
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ACE2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ACE2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ACE2 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • c-Fos
  • c-Jun
  • FOXO1
  • FOXO1a
  • GATA-1
  • IRF-2
  • MRF-2
  • Nkx2-5
  • YY1

Genomic Locations for ACE2 Gene

Latest Assembly
chrX:15,494,566-15,607,236
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
112,671 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Previous Assembly
chrX:15,536,320-15,620,281
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
Size:
83,962 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

chrX:15,579,156-15,620,271
(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
Size:
41,116 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for ACE2 Gene

Genes around ACE2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACE2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACE2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACE2 Gene

Proteins for ACE2 Gene

  • Protein details for ACE2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9BYF1-ACE2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
    Protein Accession:
    Q9BYF1
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0A7D6JAD5
    • C7ECU1
    • Q6UWP0
    • Q86WT0
    • Q9NRA7
    • Q9UFZ6

    Protein attributes for ACE2 Gene

    Size:
    805 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    92463 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Zn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29105;
    Cofactor:
    Name=chloride; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:17996;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer (PubMed:32132184). Interacts with the catalytically active form of TMPRSS2 (PubMed:21068237). Interacts with SLC6A19; this interaction is essential for expression and function of SLC6A19 in intestine (By similarity). Interacts with ITGA5:ITGB1 (PubMed:15276642, PubMed:33102950).
    • (Microbial infection) Interacts with SARS coronavirus/SARS-CoV spike protein.
    • (Microbial infection) Interacts with SARS coronavirus-2/SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
    • (Microbial infection) Interacts with human coronavirus NL63/HCoV-NL63 spike glycoprotein.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAQ89076.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACE2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACE2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for ACE2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ACE2 Gene

Q9BYF1:
  • PWTLALE
  • PHDETYCDPA
  • FLTAHHEMGHIQYDMAYA
  • ETEINFLLKQALTIVGTLPFTYMLEKWRWMVF
  • DQSIKVRISLKSALG
  • YFEPLFTWLK
  • LLRNGANEGFHEAVGEIMSLSAATP
  • VCHPTAWDLGKGDFRI
  • GCLPAHLLGDMWGRFWTNLY
  • WLLLSLVAV
  • MSTIYSTGK
  • DNSLEFLGI
  • DYGDYWRGDYE
  • QKPNIDVTDAM
  • YPSYISP
  • KWWEMKR
  • NPQECLLLEPGL
  • SFNFFVT
  • ASWNYNTNIT

Post-translational modifications for ACE2 Gene

  • N-glycosylation on Asn-90 may limit SARS infectivity.
  • Proteolytic cleavage by ADAM17 generates a secreted form (PubMed:15983030). Also cleaved by serine proteases: TMPRSS2, TMPRSS11D and HPN/TMPRSS1.
  • Glycosylation at Asn53, Asn90, Asn103, Asn322, Asn432, Asn546, Asn690, and Thr730
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect

Antibodies for research

Domains & Families for ACE2 Gene

Gene Families for ACE2 Gene

IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for ACE2 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • Peptidyl-dipeptidase A (M2) metalloprotease family signature

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACE2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Metalloprotease MPROT15 (ACE2_HUMAN)
  • Angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (C7ECU1_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9BYF1

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ACE2_HUMAN :
  • The extracellular region of the ACE2 enzyme is composed of two domains. The first is a zinc metallopeptidase domain (residues 19-611). The second domain is located at the C-terminus (residues 612-740) and is 48% identical to human collectrin.
  • Belongs to the peptidase M2 family.
Domain:
  • The extracellular region of the ACE2 enzyme is composed of two domains. The first is a zinc metallopeptidase domain (residues 19-611). The second domain is located at the C-terminus (residues 612-740) and is 48% identical to human collectrin.
Family:
  • Belongs to the peptidase M2 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACE2: view

Function for ACE2 Gene

Molecular function for ACE2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Essential counter-regulatory carboxypeptidase of the renin-angiotensin hormone system that is a critical regulator of blood volume, systemic vascular resistance, and thus cardiovascular homeostasis (PubMed:27217402). Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9, a nine-amino acid peptide with anti-hypertrophic effects in cardiomyocytes, and angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, which then acts as a beneficial vasodilator and anti-proliferation agent, counterbalancing the actions of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:10924499, PubMed:11815627, PubMed:19021774, PubMed:14504186). Also removes the C-terminal residue from three other vasoactive peptides, neurotensin, kinetensin, and des-Arg bradykinin, but is not active on bradykinin (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:11815627). Also cleaves other biological peptides, such as apelins (apelin-13, [Pyr1]apelin-13, apelin-17, apelin-36), casomorphins (beta-casomorphin-7, neocasomorphin) and dynorphin A with high efficiency (PubMed:11815627, PubMed:27217402, PubMed:28293165). In addition, ACE2 C-terminus is homologous to collectrin and is responsible for the trafficking of the neutral amino acid transporter SL6A19 to the plasma membrane of gut epithelial cells via direct interaction, regulating its expression on the cell surface and its catalytic activity (PubMed:18424768, PubMed:19185582).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
[Isoform 2]: Non-functional as a carboxypeptidase.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human coronaviruses SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, as well as human coronavirus NL63/HCoV-NL63.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
[Isoform 2]: (Microbial infection) Non-functional as a receptor for human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=angiotensin II + H2O = angiotensin-(1-7) + L-phenylalanine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:26554, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58095, ChEBI:CHEBI:58506, ChEBI:CHEBI:58922; EC=3.4.17.23; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10924499, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19021774, ECO:0000305|PubMed:14504186};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=angiotensin I + H2O = angiotensin-(1-9) + L-leucine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63532, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:57427, ChEBI:CHEBI:147350, ChEBI:CHEBI:147351; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10924499, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10969042, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19021774};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=[des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin + H2O = [des-Phe(8), des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin + L-phenylalanine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63536, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58095, ChEBI:CHEBI:133069, ChEBI:CHEBI:147352; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10969042, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + neurotensin = L-leucine + neurotensin-(1-12); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63540, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:57427, ChEBI:CHEBI:147362, ChEBI:CHEBI:147363; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10969042};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + neurotensin-(1-8) = L-arginine + neurotensin-(1-7); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63572, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:32682, ChEBI:CHEBI:147393, ChEBI:CHEBI:147394; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + kinetensin = kinetensin-(1-8) + L-leucine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63544, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:57427, ChEBI:CHEBI:147364, ChEBI:CHEBI:147365; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:10969042};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=dynorphin A-(1-13) + H2O = dynorphin A-(1-12) + L-lysine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63556, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:32551, ChEBI:CHEBI:147381, ChEBI:CHEBI:147383; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=apelin-13 + H2O = apelin-12 + L-phenylalanine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63564, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58095, ChEBI:CHEBI:147395, ChEBI:CHEBI:147396; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=[Pyr1]apelin-13 + H2O = [Pyr1]apelin-12 + L-phenylalanine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63604, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58095, ChEBI:CHEBI:147415, ChEBI:CHEBI:147416; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:27217402, ECO:0000269|PubMed:28293165};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=apelin-17 + H2O = apelin-16 + L-phenylalanine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63608, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58095, ChEBI:CHEBI:147421, ChEBI:CHEBI:147422; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:27217402};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=beta-casomorphin-7 + H2O = beta-casomorphin-6 + L-isoleucine; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63568, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58045, ChEBI:CHEBI:147390, ChEBI:CHEBI:147391; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=H2O + neocasomorphin = L-isoleucine + neocasomorphin-(1-5); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:63600, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:58045, ChEBI:CHEBI:147417, ChEBI:CHEBI:147418; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated in failing heart (PubMed:14504186, PubMed:15151696, PubMed:15671045). Expression is induced by IFNA and IFNG (PubMed:32413319, PubMed:32425701). Exposure to cigarette smoke increases expression in lungs (PubMed:32425701).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
[Isoform 1]: Not induced by interferons such as IFNA, IFNB and IFNG.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
[Isoform 2]: Expression is induced by interferons such as IFNA, IFNB and IFNG. It seems that isoform 2 is an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) but not isoform 1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
(Microbial infection) In airway epithelial cells, expression is increased upon influenza A virus infection (PubMed:32413319).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
[Isoform 2]: (Microbial infection) In airway epithelial cells, expression is induced by viruses such rhinoviruses and influenza virus.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
[Isoform 2]: (Microbial infection) Induced by human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=6.9 uM for angiotensin I {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=2.0 uM for angiotensin II {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=6.8 uM for apelin-13 {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=290 uM for [des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=130 uM for Lys-[des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=31 uM for beta-casomorphin {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=5.5 uM for dynorphin A-(1-13) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=300 uM for neurotensin-(1-8) {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627}; KM=58.6 uM for angiotensin II {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19021774}; KM=12 uM for [Pyr1]apelin-13 {ECO:0000269|PubMed:27217402}; KM=19 uM for apelin-17 {ECO:0000269|PubMed:27217402}; Vmax=28.7 nmol/min/mg enzyme with angiotensin II as substrate {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19021774}; Note=kcat is 0.034 sec(-1) with angiotensin I as substrate. kcat is 3.5 sec(-1) with angiotensin II as substrate. kcat is 13 sec(-1) with apelin-13 as substrate. kcat is 62 sec(-1) with [des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin as substrate. kcat is 26 sec(-1) with Lys-[des-Arg(9)]-bradykinin as substrate. kcat is 6.8 sec(-1) with beta-casomorphin as substrate. kcat is 16 sec(-1) with dynorphin A-(1-13) as substrate. kcat is 57 sec(-1) with neurotensin-(1-8) as substrate (PubMed:11815627). kcat is 19.1 sec(-1) with [Pyr1]apelin-13 as substrate. kcat is 7.7 sec(-1) with apelin-17 as substrate (PubMed:27217402). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627, ECO:0000269|PubMed:27217402}; pH dependence: Optimum pH is 6.5 in the presence of 1 M NaCl. Active from pH 6 to 9. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11815627};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Regulated by chloride and fluoride, but not bromide (PubMed:11815627). Chloride increases angiotensin I and decreases angiotensin II cleavage (PubMed:19021774). Inhibited by MLN-4760, cFP_Leu, and EDTA (PubMed:15231706, PubMed:10924499), but not by the ACE inhibitors lisinopril, captopril and enalaprilat (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:10924499). Highly potent and selective in vitro ACE2 inhibitors were identified (PubMed:12358520).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACE2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001618 virus receptor activity IMP 24227843
GO:0004175 endopeptidase activity IDA 15283675
GO:0004180 carboxypeptidase activity IEA,IDA 10924499
GO:0004181 metallocarboxypeptidase activity EXP 10924499
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10969042
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACE2: view

Animal Models for ACE2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACE2:
  • Ace2 Ace2<tm1Hira>
  • Ace2 Ace2<tm1Pngr>
  • Ace2 Ace2<tm1Cof>
  • Ace2 Ace2<tm1Lex>
  • Ace2 Ace2<tm1a(KOMP)Wtsi>

Animal Models for research

miRNA for ACE2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACE2

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ACE2

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACE2 Gene

Localization for ACE2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACE2 Gene

[Processed angiotensin-converting enzyme 2]: Secreted.
Cell membrane. Single-pass type I membrane protein. Cytoplasm. Note=Detected in both cell membrane and cytoplasm in neurons. {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:Q8R0I0}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACE2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,IDA 10969042
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA,IDA 18258853
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 18343844
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for ACE2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ACE2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACE2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for ACE2 Gene

Activates:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACE2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001817 regulation of cytokine production IC 15380922
GO:0002003 angiotensin maturation IC,TAS --
GO:0003051 angiotensin-mediated drinking behavior IMP 18258853
GO:0003081 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensin IMP 18258853
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACE2: view

Drugs & Compounds for ACE2 Gene

(62) Drugs for ACE2 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Captopril Approved Pharma Inhibitor, Inhibition ACE inhibitor, ACE inhibitor; also inhibits LTA4 hydrolase 55
Hydroxychloroquine Approved Pharma Target, modulator Autophagy inhibitor 478
Angiotensin II Approved, Investigational Pharma Potent vasopressor and a powerful stimulus for production and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. 1412
Vitamin C Approved Nutra 836,836
Lisinopril Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor ACE inhibitor 134

(5) Additional Compounds for ACE2 Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Benazepril hydrochloride
86541-74-4
Moexipril hydrochloride
82586-52-5

(5) Tocris Compounds for ACE2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Benazepril hydrochloride Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor 86541-74-4
Captopril ACE inhibitor; also inhibits LTA4 hydrolase 62571-86-2
Moexipril hydrochloride Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor 82586-52-5
Perindopril erbumine Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor 107133-36-8
Spinorphin Enkephalin-degrading and ACE inhibitor 137201-62-8

(6) ApexBio Compounds for ACE2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Acetyl Angiotensinogen (1-14), porcine Angiotensinogen precursor 66641-26-7
Angiotensin 1/2 (1-5) Vasoconstrictor 58442-64-1
Angiotensin 1/2 + A (2 - 8) 51833-76-2
Angiotensin I (human, mouse, rat) Precursor of angiotensin II 484-42-4
Enalaprilat Dihydrate 84680-54-6
Ramipril 87333-19-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACE2: view

Drug products for research

Transcripts for ACE2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ACE2 Gene

6 REFSEQ mRNAs :
17 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ACE2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACE2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16 ^ 17a ·
SP1:
SP2: -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -
SP5:
SP6: -

ExUns: 17b ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:

Relevant External Links for ACE2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ACE2

Expression for ACE2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for ACE2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACE2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x13.3), Testis (x7.7), and Heart - Left Ventricle (x6.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACE2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (30.4), Urine (19.6), and Pancreatic juice (14.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for ACE2 Gene



Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ACE2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACE2 Gene:

Hs.178098

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACE2 Gene:

Q9BYF1-ACE2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in endothelial cells from small and large arteries, and in arterial smooth muscle cells (at protein level) (PubMed:15141377). Expressed in enterocytes of the small intestine, Leydig cells and Sertoli cells (at protein level) (PubMed:15141377). Expressed in the renal proximal tubule and the small intestine (at protein level) (PubMed:18424768). Expressed in heart, kidney, testis, and gastrointestinal system (at protein level) (PubMed:10969042, PubMed:10924499, PubMed:15231706, PubMed:12459472, PubMed:15671045, PubMed:32715618, PubMed:32170560). In lung, expressed at low levels in some alveolar type 2 cells, the expression seems to be individual-specific (at protein level) (PubMed:32425701, PubMed:15141377, PubMed:32715618, PubMed:32170560). Coexpressed with TMPRSS2 within some lung alveolar type 2 cells, ileal absorptive enterocytes, intestinal epithelial cells, cornea, gallbladder and nasal goblet secretory cells (PubMed:32413319, PubMed:32327758, PubMed:32358202). Coexpressed with TMPRSS4 within mature enterocytes (PubMed:32404436).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACE2 Gene

  • Heart(4.6)
  • Lung(4.6)
  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Kidney(3.7)
  • Muscle(3.1)
  • Blood(2.8)
  • Gall bladder(2.7)
  • Intestine(2.6)
  • Pancreas(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACE2: view

Primer products for research

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACE2 Gene

Orthologs for ACE2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ACE2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACE2 29 30
  • 98.53 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACE2 29 30
  • 86.95 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACE2 29 30
  • 85.24 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ace2 29 16 30
  • 85.1 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ace2 29
  • 84.93 (n)
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACE2 30
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACE2 30
  • 69 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACE2 29 30
  • 68.7 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACE2 30
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ace2 29
  • 64.56 (n)
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ace2 29 30
  • 61.1 (n)
OneToOne
Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2478 29
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ance 30
  • 35 (a)
ManyToMany
Acer 30 31
  • 34 (a)
ManyToMany
Ance-2 31
  • 23 (a)
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea acn-1 29 30
  • 42.11 (n)
OneToMany
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 30
  • 21 (a)
ManyToMany
Species where no ortholog for ACE2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ACE2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ACE2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ACE2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ACE2: view image
Alliance of Genome Resources:
Additional Orthologs for ACE2

Paralogs for ACE2 Gene

Paralogs for ACE2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for ACE2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • ACE2_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACE2: view

Variants for ACE2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for ACE2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 0X pos Variation AA Info Type
rs139052738 Benign: not provided 15,522,476(-) C/T
NM_203281.3(BMX):c.641C>T (p.Ala214Val)
MISSENSE
rs145482201 Benign: not provided 15,542,189(-) C/T
NM_203281.3(BMX):c.1602C>T (p.His534=)
SYNONYMOUS
rs199628215 Benign: not provided 15,549,831(-) G/C
NM_203281.3(BMX):c.1796-9G>C
INTRON
rs4646116 Likely Benign: not provided 15,600,835(-) T/Cp.Lys26Arg
NM_001371415.1(ACE2):c.77A>G (p.Lys26Arg)
MISSENSE
rs4646179 Benign: not provided 15,566,297(-) A/G
NM_001371415.1(ACE2):c.2070T>C (p.Asn690=)
SYNONYMOUS

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for ACE2 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACE2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1125275 CNV insertion 24896259

Variation tolerance for ACE2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 49.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.61; 31.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ACE2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
ACE2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
ACE2
Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD)
ACE2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACE2 Gene

Disorders for ACE2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(33) MalaCards diseases for ACE2 Gene - From: COP and GCD

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
covid-19
  • 2019 novel coronavirus
severe acute respiratory syndrome
  • sars
coronavirus infectious disease
hartnup disorder
  • hnd
intracranial aneurysm
  • brain aneurysm
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACE2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ACE2

Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
Atlas
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform
Open Targets Platform
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACE2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACE2 Gene

Publications for ACE2 Gene

  1. A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9. (PMID: 10969042) Donoghue M … Acton S (Circulation research 2000) 2 3 4 22
  2. Tissue-specific amino acid transporter partners ACE2 and collectrin differentially interact with hartnup mutations. (PMID: 19185582) Camargo SM … Verrey F (Gastroenterology 2009) 3 4 22
  3. Polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 are not associated with orthostatic blood pressure dysregulation in hypertensive patients. (PMID: 19684612) Fan XH … Hui RT (Acta pharmacologica Sinica 2009) 3 22 40
  4. Genetic variation in angiotensin-converting enzyme-related pathways associated with sudden cardiac arrest risk. (PMID: 19716087) Sotoodehnia N … Siscovick DS (Heart rhythm 2009) 3 22 40
  5. [Relationship of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene polymorphisms and vulnerability to coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus]. (PMID: 18753062) Yan QN … Jiang CX (Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University 2008) 3 22 40

Products for ACE2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for ACE2

Sources for ACE2 Gene