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Aliases for ACAT2 Gene

Aliases for ACAT2 Gene

  • Acetyl-CoA Acetyltransferase 2 2 3 5
  • Acetyl-CoA Transferase-Like Protein 3 4
  • Cytosolic Acetoacetyl-CoA Thiolase 3 4
  • Acetoacetyl Coenzyme A Thiolase 2 3
  • Acetyl-Coenzyme A Acetyltransferase 2 (Acetoacetyl Coenzyme A Thiolase) 2
  • Acetyl-CoA Acetyltransferase, Cytosolic 3
  • Acetyl-Coenzyme A Acetyltransferase 2 2
  • EC 4
  • ACTL 4

External Ids for ACAT2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACAT2 Gene

  • GC06P159622
  • GC06P160056
  • GC06P160015
  • GC06P160092
  • GC06P160153
  • GC06P157652
  • GC06P160182

Summaries for ACAT2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACAT2 Gene

  • The product of this gene is an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, and it encodes cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. This gene shows complementary overlapping with the 3-prime region of the TCP1 gene in both mouse and human. These genes are encoded on opposite strands of DNA, as well as in opposite transcriptional orientation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

GeneCards Summary for ACAT2 Gene

ACAT2 (Acetyl-CoA Acetyltransferase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACAT2 include Acetyl-Coa Acetyltransferase-2 Deficiency. Among its related pathways are superpathway of tryptophan utilization and Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups and acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ACAT1.

Gene Wiki entry for ACAT2 Gene

Additional gene information for ACAT2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACAT2 Gene

Genomics for ACAT2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ACAT2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ACAT2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J159759 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +1.3 1259 4 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ACAT2 ENSG00000285441 SOD2-OT1 MRPL18 WTAP PNLDC1
GH06J159758 Enhancer 0.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE 650.7 -1.7 -1744 0.9 PAF1 CTCF ZNF189 ZNF384 ZNF644 NFIL3 XRCC5 GATAD1 ZNF366 POLR2A ACAT2 MRPL18 PNLDC1 LOC105378085 ENSG00000285441 SOD2
GH06J159725 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12 -32.1 -32064 5.4 CLOCK MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 WTAP GC06M159725 SOD2 MRPL18 TCP1 PNLDC1 ACAT2 SNORA29 SNORA20 LOC729603
GH06J159690 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 -66.9 -66929 5.8 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 SOD2 MRPL18 WTAP PNLDC1 ACAT2 SNORA29 TCP1 SNORA20 LOC105378085 GC06M159698
GH06J159699 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.4 -59.3 -59344 3.5 YY1 ATF7 FOS KLF13 SP3 RXRA TSHZ1 REST ZNF623 ZNF518A GC06M159698 MRPL18 WTAP PNLDC1 SOD2 ACAT2 SNORA29 TCP1 GC06M159668 PIR54448
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ACAT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ACAT2 gene promoter:
  • FOXD3
  • MAZR
  • POU2F1a
  • POU2F1
  • MyoD
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • GR-beta
  • STAT5B
  • AML1a

Genomic Locations for ACAT2 Gene

Genomic Locations for ACAT2 Gene
18,785 bases
Plus strand
18,785 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ACAT2 Gene

Genes around ACAT2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACAT2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACAT2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACAT2 Gene

Proteins for ACAT2 Gene

  • Protein details for ACAT2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, cytosolic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z233
    • E1P5B1
    • Q16146
    • Q5TCL7
    • Q8TDM4

    Protein attributes for ACAT2 Gene

    397 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41351 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACAT2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACAT2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ACAT2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ACAT2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=124124
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for ACAT2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ACAT2 Gene

Domains & Families for ACAT2 Gene

Gene Families for ACAT2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for ACAT2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACAT2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the thiolase family.
  • Belongs to the thiolase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACAT2: view

Function for ACAT2 Gene

Molecular function for ACAT2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2 acetyl-CoA = CoA + acetoacetyl-CoA.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase 2,cytosolic,overlapping in opposite orientation,the 3 region of t complex 1 (TCP1)

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACAT2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACAT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003985 acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase activity IDA,TAS --
GO:0003988 acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activity IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21044950
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016746 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACAT2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACAT2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ACAT2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

miRNA for ACAT2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACAT2

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ACAT2

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACAT2 Gene

Localization for ACAT2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACAT2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACAT2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 4
peroxisome 3
plasma membrane 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Nucleus (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACAT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005730 nucleolus IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA,TAS 7911016
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACAT2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ACAT2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACAT2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACAT2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IC 7911016
GO:0006635 fatty acid beta-oxidation IBA --
GO:0006695 cholesterol biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACAT2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ACAT2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ACAT2 Gene

(4) Drugs for ACAT2 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
S-Hydroxycysteine Experimental Pharma Target 0
Acetoacetyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0
Coenzyme A Investigational Nutra Target 0

(5) Additional Compounds for ACAT2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • AcCoA
  • Acetyl coenzyme A
  • S-Acetyl-CoA
  • S-Acetyl-coenzyme A
  • Ac-CoA
  • 3-Ketohexanoyl coa.
  • 3-Ketohexanoyl coenzyme A.
  • 3-Oxohexanoyl-coenzyme A
  • Ketohexanoyl-CoA
  • Ketohexanoyl-coenzyme A
  • Butanoyl-CoA
  • Butanoyl-coenzyme A
  • Butyryl-coenzyme A
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACAT2: view

Transcripts for ACAT2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ACAT2 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(438) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ACAT2 Gene

Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ACAT2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACAT2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d · 6e · 6f · 6g ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - -
SP7: - - - -
SP9: - - - -
SP10: -

Relevant External Links for ACAT2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACAT2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ACAT2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACAT2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (9.6), Fetal testis (9.4), Fetal Liver (7.4), and Liver, secretome (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ACAT2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACAT2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ACAT2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACAT2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACAT2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Lung(4.7)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Kidney(4.3)
  • Skin(2.4)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACAT2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • head
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACAT2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACAT2 Gene

Orthologs for ACAT2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ACAT2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACAT2 34 33
  • 99.5 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACAT2 34 33
  • 89.14 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACAT2 34 33
  • 88.8 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acat2 34 33
  • 86.11 (n)
Acat3 16 34
  • 86 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acat2 33
  • 85.02 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACAT2 34
  • 81 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACAT2 34
  • 72 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACAT2 34 33
  • 73.13 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACAT2 34
  • 67 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia acat2 33
  • 69.87 (n)
MGC76038 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia ACAT2 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii acat2 34 33
  • 68.62 (n)
-- 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.356 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP001318 33
  • 56.74 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG9149 34 35 33
  • 55.81 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ERG10 34
  • 42 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ACAT2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ACAT2 Gene

Gene Tree for ACAT2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ACAT2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ACAT2: view image

Paralogs for ACAT2 Gene

Paralogs for ACAT2 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for ACAT2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

  • B7Z233_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACAT2: view

Variants for ACAT2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACAT2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000053818 -- 159,772,788(+) A/T intron_variant
rs1000179727 -- 159,768,777(+) G/T intron_variant
rs1000216280 -- 159,762,331(+) T/A/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000312919 -- 159,762,505(+) T/A/C 5_prime_UTR_variant, intron_variant
rs1000550825 -- 159,775,040(+) C/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACAT2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2759483 CNV gain 17122850
nsv5563 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for ACAT2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 26.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 11.60; 93.09% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ACAT2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACAT2 Gene

Disorders for ACAT2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for ACAT2 Gene - From: OMIM and GTR

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
acetyl-coa acetyltransferase-2 deficiency
  • acat2d
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACAT2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ACAT2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACAT2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ACAT2 Gene

Publications for ACAT2 Gene

  1. High resolution crystal structures of human cytosolic thiolase (CT): a comparison of the active sites of human CT, bacterial thiolase, and bacterial KAS I. (PMID: 15733928) Kursula P … Wierenga RK (Journal of molecular biology 2005) 3 4 22 58
  2. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of complementary DNA for human hepatic cytosolic acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase. (PMID: 7911016) Song XQ … Orii T (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1994) 3 4 22 58
  3. Analysis of lipid pathway genes indicates association of sequence variation near SREBF1/TOM1L2/ATPAF2 with dementia risk. (PMID: 20167577) Reynolds CA … Prince JA (Human molecular genetics 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58

Products for ACAT2 Gene

Sources for ACAT2 Gene

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