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Aliases for ACACA Gene

Aliases for ACACA Gene

  • Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Alpha 2 3 5
  • Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase Alpha 2 3
  • Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1 2 3
  • ACC-Alpha 3 4
  • ACAC 3 4
  • ACC1 3 4
  • ACCA 3 4
  • EC 4
  • ACACAD 3
  • ACC 3

External Ids for ACACA Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ACACA Gene

  • ACAC
  • ACC

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACACA Gene

  • GC17M034828
  • GC17M037396
  • GC17M035173
  • GC17M035639
  • GC17M035637
  • GC17M032516
  • GC17M035441
  • GC17M031378

Summaries for ACACA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACACA Gene

  • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a complex multifunctional enzyme system. ACC is a biotin-containing enzyme which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis. There are two ACC forms, alpha and beta, encoded by two different genes. ACC-alpha is highly enriched in lipogenic tissues. The enzyme is under long term control at the transcriptional and translational levels and under short term regulation by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of targeted serine residues and by allosteric transformation by citrate or palmitoyl-CoA. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants divergent in the 5' sequence and encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ACACA Gene

ACACA (Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Alpha) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACACA include Acetyl-Coa Carboxylase Deficiency and Multiple Carboxylase Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Development_Leptin signaling via PI3K-dependent pathway and Regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis by SREBP (SREBF). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include ligase activity and D-alanine-D-alanine ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ACACB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACACA Gene

  • Catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biogenesis of long-chain fatty acids. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.

Tocris Summary for ACACA Gene

Gene Wiki entry for ACACA Gene

Additional gene information for ACACA Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACACA Gene

Genomics for ACACA Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ACACA Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ACACA Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17J037405 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 0.0 -14 3.2 HDGF SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B ZNF766 TADA2A ACACA ENSG00000273965 DUSP14 DDX52 SYNRG
GH17J037356 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.2 +47.3 47314 5.8 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B ACACA C17orf78 GC17M037328 GC17M037330
GH17J037486 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.3 -83.9 -83938 8.2 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 SLC30A9 DUSP14 GC17M037483 TADA2A ACACA DDX52 SYNRG MRPL45 PIR41271
GH17J037482 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.8 -76.7 -76674 1.5 HDAC1 BATF ZNF335 GLIS2 ZNF366 FOS ATF7 EGR2 JUNB CEBPB GC17P037485 TADA2A ACACA SYNRG GC17M037483 GC17M037452
GH17J037429 Enhancer 1 ENCODE dbSUPER 12.5 -23.4 -23430 2.4 ATF1 ZNF335 ZFP91 ATF7 IKZF2 RUNX3 CREM CAVIN1 CEBPB JUNB GC17P037432 TADA2A ACACA DUSP14 C17orf78 DDX52 SYNRG ENSG00000273965
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ACACA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ACACA gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB

Genomic Locations for ACACA Gene

Genomic Locations for ACACA Gene
321,835 bases
Minus strand
324,987 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ACACA Gene

Genes around ACACA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ACACA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ACACA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACACA Gene

Proteins for ACACA Gene

  • Protein details for ACACA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RP68
    • Q6KEV6
    • Q6XDA8
    • Q7Z2G8
    • Q7Z561
    • Q7Z563
    • Q7Z564
    • Q86WB2
    • Q86WB3

    Protein attributes for ACACA Gene

    2346 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    265554 Da
    Name=biotin; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57586;
    Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer, homodimer, and homotetramer. Can form filamentous polymers. Interacts in its inactive phosphorylated form with the BRCT domains of BRCA1 which prevents ACACA dephosphorylation and inhibits lipid synthesis. Interacts with MID1IP1; interaction with MID1IP1 promotes oligomerization and increases its activity.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACACA Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACACA Gene


neXtProt entry for ACACA Gene

Post-translational modifications for ACACA Gene

  • Phosphorylation on Ser-1263 is required for interaction with BRCA1.
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=17591759 and Lys288
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ACACA Gene

Domains & Families for ACACA Gene

Gene Families for ACACA Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ACACA Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACACA: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACACA Gene

Function for ACACA Gene

Molecular function for ACACA Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biogenesis of long-chain fatty acids. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + acetyl-CoA + HCO(3)(-) = ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + [biotin carboxyl-carrier protein]-biotin-N(6)-L-lysine + hydrogencarbonate- = ADP + phosphate + [biotin carboxyl-carrier protein]-carboxybiotin-N(6)-L-lysine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
By phosphorylation (By similarity). Activity is increased by oligomerization. Citrate and MID1IP1 promote oligomerization.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha,265kDa,biotine dependent,expressed in lipogenic tissues,cytosolic,catalyzing the synthesis of malonyl-CoA,an intermediate substrate playing a pivotal role in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ACACA Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ACACA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACACA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0003989 acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity TAS --
GO:0004075 biotin carboxylase activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16326698
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACACA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACACA: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ACACA Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for ACACA Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ACACA:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ACACA

miRNA for ACACA Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACACA

Clone Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACACA Gene

Localization for ACACA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACACA Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACACA gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Actin filaments (1)
  • Nucleoli fibrillar center (1)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACACA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001650 fibrillar center IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS,IDA --
GO:0015629 actin cytoskeleton IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACACA: view

Pathways & Interactions for ACACA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACACA: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q13085-ACACA_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Lipid metabolism; malonyl-CoA biosynthesis; malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA: step 1/1.

SIGNOR curated interactions for ACACA Gene

Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACACA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001894 tissue homeostasis IEA --
GO:0006084 acetyl-CoA metabolic process ISS --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006631 fatty acid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006633 fatty acid biosynthetic process ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACACA: view

Drugs & Compounds for ACACA Gene

(27) Drugs for ACACA Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Biotin Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 53
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Manganese Approved Nutra 37
Malonyl-CoA Experimental Pharma 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Full agonist, Antagonist, Potentiation, Pore Blocker 0

(18) Additional Compounds for ACACA Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • AcCoA
  • Acetyl coenzyme A
  • S-Acetyl-CoA
  • S-Acetyl-coenzyme A
  • Ac-CoA
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Gating inhibitor 58-64-0
Carbonic acid
  • [co(OH)2]
  • Dihydrogen carbonate
  • H2CO3
  • Koehlensaeure
  • Carbonate
  • [po(OH)3]
  • Acide phosphorique
  • Acidum phosphoricum
  • H3PO4
  • Orthophosphoric acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACACA: view

Transcripts for ACACA Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ACACA Gene

Unigene Clusters for ACACA Gene

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACACA Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ACACA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACACA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ACACA Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ACACA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (8.5) and Lung (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ACACA Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ACACA Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ACACA Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACACA Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACACA Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in brain, placental, skeletal muscle, renal, pancreatic and adipose tissues; expressed at low level in pulmonary tissue; not detected in the liver.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ACACA Gene

  • Liver(4.8)
  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Adrenal gland(2.3)
  • Blood(2.3)
  • Intestine(2.1)
  • Muscle(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ACACA Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ACACA: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for ACACA Gene

Orthologs for ACACA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for ACACA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACACA 33
  • 99.62 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACACA 33
  • 93.57 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Acaca 16 33
  • 91.23 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACACA 33
  • 91.18 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Acaca 33
  • 90.46 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACACA 33
  • 82.01 (n)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia acaca 33
  • 78.77 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii acaca 33
  • 75.56 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta ACC 33
  • 62.51 (n)
CG11198 35
  • 61 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP005175 33
  • 60.56 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea W09B6.1 35
  • 43 (a)
T28F3.5 35
  • 41 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ACC1 33
  • 53.16 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAR071W 33
  • 53.14 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F06072g 33
  • 53.11 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ACC2 33
  • 50.54 (n)
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.264 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.8708 33
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes cut6 33
  • 53.16 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU08535 33
  • 53 (n)
Species where no ortholog for ACACA was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ACACA Gene

Gene Tree for ACACA (if available)
Gene Tree for ACACA (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ACACA: view image

Paralogs for ACACA Gene

Paralogs for ACACA Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for ACACA Gene using alignment to 13 proteins:

  • B2ZZ90_HUMAN
  • K7EJ22_HUMAN
  • K7EK64_HUMAN
  • Q59FY4_HUMAN
  • Q7Z5W8_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACACA: view

Variants for ACACA Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACACA Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
VAR_036514 A colorectal cancer sample p.Arg1687Gln
rs1000007726 -- 37,369,849(-) G/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000042383 -- 37,267,764(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1000054688 -- 37,385,952(-) C/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000065177 -- 37,172,565(-) A/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACACA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv3157n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv2658235 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2661121 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2667392 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2715887 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2758687 CNV gain 17122850
esv32692 CNV loss 17666407
esv3554382 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3640480 CNV gain 21293372
esv3640484 CNV gain 21293372
esv3640486 CNV loss 21293372
esv3640487 CNV gain 21293372
esv3640488 CNV loss 21293372
esv3640489 CNV loss 21293372
esv3640493 CNV gain 21293372
esv3640494 CNV gain 21293372
esv999747 CNV insertion 20482838
nsv1061019 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1061860 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1134644 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1136234 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv510707 CNV deletion 20534489
nsv511589 CNV loss 21212237
nsv527922 CNV gain 19592680
nsv574926 CNV loss 21841781
nsv574927 CNV loss 21841781
nsv574928 CNV loss 21841781
nsv960476 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ACACA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 0.542% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.69; 46.18% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ACACA Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACACA Gene

Disorders for ACACA Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(9) MalaCards diseases for ACACA Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, GTR, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
acetyl-coa carboxylase deficiency
  • acacad
multiple carboxylase deficiency
  • mcd
biotin deficiency
  • b7 deficiency
hepatic coma
  • hepatocerebral intoxication
diabetes mellitus, ketosis-prone
  • kpd
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ACACA in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 deficiency (ACACAD) [MIM:613933]: An inborn error of de novo fatty acid synthesis associated with severe brain damage, persistent myopathy and poor growth. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:6114432}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for ACACA

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACACA: view

No data available for Genatlas for ACACA Gene

Publications for ACACA Gene

  1. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha gene and breast cancer susceptibility. (PMID: 15333468) Sinilnikova OM … Lenoir GM (Carcinogenesis 2004) 3 4 22 44 58
  2. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha gene variations may be associated with the direct effects of some antipsychotics on triglyceride levels. (PMID: 19846279) Diaz FJ … de Leon J (Schizophrenia research 2009) 3 22 44 58
  3. Haplotype-based analysis of common variation in the acetyl-coA carboxylase alpha gene and breast cancer risk: a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. (PMID: 17372234) Sinilnikova OM … Kaaks R (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2007) 3 22 44 58
  4. BRCA1 affects lipid synthesis through its interaction with acetyl-CoA carboxylase. (PMID: 16326698) Moreau K … Venezia ND (The Journal of biological chemistry 2006) 3 4 22 58
  5. Asymmetric expression of transcripts derived from the shared promoter between the divergently oriented ACACA and TADA2L genes. (PMID: 15607423) Travers MT … Joulin V (Genomics 2005) 3 4 22 58

Products for ACACA Gene

Sources for ACACA Gene

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