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Aliases for ABAT Gene

Aliases for ABAT Gene

  • 4-Aminobutyrate Aminotransferase 2 3 5
  • (S)-3-Amino-2-Methylpropionate Transaminase 3 4
  • Gamma-Amino-N-Butyrate Transaminase 3 4
  • 4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase 2 3
  • GABA Aminotransferase 3 4
  • GABA Transaminase 3 4
  • GABA-AT 3 4
  • GABAT 3 4
  • 4-Aminobutyrate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial 3
  • GABA Transferase 3
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • L-AIBAT 4
  • NPD009 3
  • GABA-T 4

External Ids for ABAT Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ABAT Gene

  • GC16P008572
  • GC16P008868
  • GC16P008735
  • GC16P008675
  • GC16P008768

Summaries for ABAT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ABAT Gene

  • 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT) is responsible for catabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an important, mostly inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, into succinic semialdehyde. The active enzyme is a homodimer of 50-kD subunits complexed to pyridoxal-5-phosphate. The protein sequence is over 95% similar to the pig protein. GABA is estimated to be present in nearly one-third of human synapses. ABAT in liver and brain is controlled by 2 codominant alleles with a frequency in a Caucasian population of 0.56 and 0.44. The ABAT deficiency phenotype includes psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, lethargy, refractory seizures, and EEG abnormalities. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein isoform have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ABAT Gene

ABAT (4-Aminobutyrate Aminotransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ABAT include Gaba-Transaminase Deficiency and Gaba Aminotransferase Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Transmission across Chemical Synapses and Neurotransmitter Release Cycle. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and iron-sulfur cluster binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ABAT Gene

  • Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.

Additional gene information for ABAT Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ABAT Gene

Genomics for ABAT Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ABAT Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ABAT Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH16I008673 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 558.6 -0.1 -64 1.4 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF48 ETS1 GLIS2 FOS SP3 SP5 NFYC MXD4 ABAT METTL22 GC16P008670
GH16I008718 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 576.1 +45.9 45891 4.1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B SIN3A BMI1 RAD21 ZNF48 RFX5 RARA SCRT2 ABAT RN7SL743P GC16M008721 RNU7-63P
GH16I008712 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 556.8 +38.3 38308 0.7 CTCF PKNOX1 USF1 RFX1 POLR2A USF2 RCOR1 BMI1 ABAT RNU7-63P GC16M008721
GH16I008716 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 550.3 +41.5 41487 0.1 ZMYM3 ABAT GC16M008721 RNU7-63P
GH16I008675 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 550.8 +0.8 754 0.2 ELF3 SUZ12 TCF7 NR2F6 ZNF398 RUNX3 RARA ABAT METTL22 RN7SL743P
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around ABAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ABAT gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for ABAT Gene

Genomic Locations for ABAT Gene
110,011 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ABAT Gene

Genes around ABAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ABAT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ABAT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ABAT Gene

Proteins for ABAT Gene

  • Protein details for ABAT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K386
    • Q16260
    • Q8N5W2
    • Q96BG2
    • Q99800

    Protein attributes for ABAT Gene

    500 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    56439 Da
    Name=pyridoxal 5-phosphate; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:597326; Name=[2Fe-2S] cluster; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:49601;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.

neXtProt entry for ABAT Gene

Post-translational modifications for ABAT Gene

No Post-translational modifications

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ABAT Gene

Domains & Families for ABAT Gene

Gene Families for ABAT Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ABAT Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-III pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
  • Belongs to the class-III pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ABAT: view

Function for ABAT Gene

Molecular function for ABAT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
4-aminobutanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = succinate semialdehyde + L-glutamate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(S)-3-amino-2-methylpropanoate + 2-oxoglutarate = 2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate + L-glutamate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L-beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ABAT Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ABAT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ABAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0003867 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity TAS --
GO:0008483 transaminase activity IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0030170 pyridoxal phosphate binding IDA 15650327
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ABAT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ABAT: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ABAT Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ABAT Gene

Localization for ABAT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ABAT Gene

Mitochondrion matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ABAT gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 1
cytosol 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ABAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion ISS --
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0032144 4-aminobutyrate transaminase complex IDA 15528998
GO:0043005 neuron projection IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA,HDA 23376485
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ABAT: view

Pathways & Interactions for ABAT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ABAT: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ABAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0007568 aging IEA --
GO:0007620 copulation IEA --
GO:0007626 locomotory behavior IEA --
GO:0009448 gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ABAT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ABAT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ABAT Gene

(46) Drugs for ABAT Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Vigabatrin Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor, Target, inhibitor GABA transaminase inhibitor, GABA-T inhibitor 23
Valproic Acid Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor HDAC1 inhibitor, Histone deacetylase (HDAC)inhibitors 333
Phenelzine Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 7
Glutamic Acid Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 251
L-Alanine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target, inhibitor Glycine receptor agonist 0

(24) Additional Compounds for ABAT Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(S)-b-aminoisobutyric acid
  • (+)-a-Methyl-b-alanine
  • (+)-alpha-Methyl-beta-alanine
  • (+)-b-Aminoisobutyric acid
  • (+)-beta-Aminoisobutyric acid
  • (S)-3-amino-2-methyl-Propanoate
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde
  • (2S)-2-methyl-3-oxopropanoate
  • (2S)-2-methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid
  • (S)-Methylmalonate semialdehyde
2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid
  • 2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoate
  • 2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid
  • 3-Oxo-2-methylpropanoate
  • 3-Oxo-2-methylpropanoic acid
  • Ch3-malonate-semialdehyde
4-ene-Valproic acid
  • beta-Alanyl-CoA
  • beta-Alanyl-Coenzyme A

(5) Tocris Compounds for ABAT Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
3-Methyl-GABA Activator of GABA amino-transferase 71424-95-8
N-Acetyltryptamine Substrate for serotonin N-acetyl transferase 1016-47-3
P-3FAX-Neu5Ac Sialic acid analog; sialyltransferase inhibitor 117405-58-0
Tunicamycin Antibiotic; GlcNAc phosphotransferase inhibitor 11089-65-9
Vigabatrin GABA-T inhibitor 60643-86-9

(1) ApexBio Compounds for ABAT Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Vigabatrin GABA transaminase inhibitor 68506-86-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ABAT: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for ABAT Gene

Unigene Clusters for ABAT Gene

4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ABAT Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b · 4c · 4d ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1: - - - - - - - - -
SP2: -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: -
SP6: -
SP7: - - -

Relevant External Links for ABAT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ABAT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ABAT Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ABAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x5.3) and Brain - Nucleus accumbens (basal ganglia) (x4.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ABAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (39.8) and Liver (8.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for ABAT Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ABAT Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ABAT Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ABAT Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ABAT Gene:

Tissue specificity: Liver > pancreas > brain > kidney > heart > placenta.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ABAT Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Liver(4.7)
  • Eye(4.5)
  • Pancreas(4.4)
  • Kidney(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ABAT Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • chin
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • head
  • jaw
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • meninges
  • mouth
  • skull
  • skin
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ABAT: view

Orthologs for ABAT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ABAT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ABAT 33 34
  • 99.33 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ABAT 33 34
  • 90.93 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ABAT 33 34
  • 90.13 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 89 (a)
-- 34
  • 83 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Abat 33
  • 87.53 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Abat 33 16 34
  • 87.2 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ABAT 34
  • 87 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ABAT 33 34
  • 78 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ABAT 34
  • 89 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia abat 33
  • 73 (n)
Str.7135 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC68458 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii abat 33 34
  • 68.07 (n)
Dr.5312 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG7433 35 33 34
  • 60.69 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006966 33
  • 58.78 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gta-1 33 34
  • 51.76 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGL050C 33
  • 52.03 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes UGA1 33 34 36
  • 51.35 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F20548g 33
  • 51.13 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU08998 33
  • 57.99 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes uga1 33
  • 52.07 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10243 34
  • 52 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.9327 33
Species where no ortholog for ABAT was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ABAT Gene

Gene Tree for ABAT (if available)
Gene Tree for ABAT (if available)

Paralogs for ABAT Gene

No data available for Paralogs for ABAT Gene

Variants for ABAT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ABAT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs10261 uncertain-significance, Gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase deficiency 8,784,314(+) T/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, downstream_transcript_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1061842 benign, Gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase deficiency 8,783,023(+) T/A/C 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1079348 benign, Gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase deficiency 8,779,599(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1139522 uncertain-significance, Gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase deficiency 8,768,234(+) C/A/T coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs11648372 benign, Gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase deficiency 8,783,544(+) G/A 3_prime_UTR_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ABAT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv984256 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv571428 CNV gain 21841781
nsv571427 CNV gain 21841781
nsv571424 CNV gain 21841781
nsv571409 CNV gain 21841781
nsv571406 CNV gain 21841781
nsv523677 CNV loss 19592680
nsv522898 CNV gain 19592680
nsv522342 CNV loss 19592680
nsv457398 CNV gain 19166990
nsv457394 CNV gain 19166990
nsv457393 CNV gain 19166990
nsv1127470 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1048675 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1047172 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1043667 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1037325 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1036281 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1036125 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1035233 CNV gain 25217958
esv3892787 CNV gain 25118596
esv3637845 CNV gain 21293372
esv3637844 CNV gain 21293372
esv3637843 CNV loss 21293372
esv3637842 CNV gain 21293372
esv3637841 CNV gain 21293372
esv3637840 CNV loss 21293372
esv3637839 CNV loss 21293372
esv3570276 CNV gain 25503493
esv3553088 CNV deletion 23714750
esv2762154 CNV gain 21179565
esv2660203 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2385301 CNV deletion 18987734
dgv4906n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv341n27 CNV gain 19166990

Variation tolerance for ABAT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 25.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.64; 31.48% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ABAT Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ABAT Gene

Disorders for ABAT Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(11) MalaCards diseases for ABAT Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
gaba-transaminase deficiency
  • gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase deficiency
gaba aminotransferase deficiency
  • gamma-amino butyric acid transaminase deficiency
  • hrx
succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
  • ssadhd
  • homocarnosinase deficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ABAT in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • GABA transaminase deficiency (GABATD) [MIM:613163]: An enzymatic deficiency resulting in psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, lethargy, refractory seizures, and EEG abnormalities. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10407778}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for ABAT

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ABAT: view

No data available for Genatlas for ABAT Gene

Publications for ABAT Gene

  1. Pathway-based association analysis of genome-wide screening data suggest that genes associated with the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor signaling pathway are involved in neuroleptic-induced, treatment-resistant tardive dyskinesia. (PMID: 18334916) Inada T … Arinami T (Pharmacogenetics and genomics 2008) 3 22 44 58
  2. An association study between polymorphisms in five genes in glutamate and GABA pathway and paranoid schizophrenia. (PMID: 15642443) Zhang B … Shen Y (European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists 2005) 3 22 44 58
  3. Cysteine-321 of human brain GABA transaminase is involved in intersubunit cross-linking. (PMID: 15528998) Yoon CS … Choi SY (Molecules and cells 2004) 3 4 22 58
  4. 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-transaminase) deficiency. (PMID: 10407778) Medina-Kauwe LK … Gibson KM (Journal of inherited metabolic disease 1999) 3 4 22 58
  5. Primary structure and tissue distribution of human 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase. (PMID: 7851425) De Biase D … Bossa F (European journal of biochemistry 1995) 3 4 22 58

Products for ABAT Gene

Sources for ABAT Gene

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