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Aliases for AANAT Gene

Aliases for AANAT Gene

  • Aralkylamine N-Acetyltransferase 2 3 4 5
  • Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase 2 3
  • Serotonin N-Acetyltransferase 2 3
  • Serotonin Acetylase 3 4
  • SNAT 3 4
  • EC 4
  • AA-NAT 4
  • DSPS 3

External Ids for AANAT Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for AANAT Gene

  • GC17P074297
  • GC17P077455
  • GC17P074927
  • GC17P075060
  • GC17P071975
  • GC17P074449
  • GC17P069877

Summaries for AANAT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AANAT Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the acetyltransferase superfamily. It is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis and controls the night/day rhythm in melatonin production in the vertebrate pineal gland. Melatonin is essential for the function of the circadian clock that influences activity and sleep. This enzyme is regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation that promotes its interaction with 14-3-3 proteins and thus protects the enzyme against proteasomal degradation. This gene may contribute to numerous genetic diseases such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

GeneCards Summary for AANAT Gene

AANAT (Aralkylamine N-Acetyltransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AANAT include Dissociative Amnesia and Dissociative Disorder. Among its related pathways are Biogenic Amine Synthesis and Amine-derived hormones. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include N-acetyltransferase activity and arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AANAT Gene

  • Controls the night/day rhythm of melatonin production in the pineal gland. Catalyzes the N-acetylation of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, the penultimate step in the synthesis of melatonin.

Additional gene information for AANAT Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AANAT Gene

Genomics for AANAT Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for AANAT Gene

Promoters and enhancers for AANAT Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17J076452 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +0.1 138 2 HDGF ATF1 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZNF48 YY1 GLIS2 ZNF207 AANAT UBE2O MFSD11 ENSG00000266980 METTL23 SPHK1 GC17M076452 GC17P076430
GH17J076467 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 650.4 +14.8 14775 0.1 POLR2A GC17P076469 AANAT GC17M076452
GH17J076480 Enhancer 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 17.6 +30.5 30486 6.1 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 UNK SRSF2 TRIM65 ENSG00000267342 ENSG00000267801 RHBDF2 AANAT CDK3 UBE2O SAP30BP
GH17J076352 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.7 -98.8 -98821 2.9 CLOCK MLX DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 PRPSAP1 UNK SRSF2 METTL23 ENSG00000266980 SEPT9 MFSD11 ENSG00000267342 EXOC7 SAP30BP
GH17J076489 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.7 +40.3 40330 7.2 ELF3 PKNOX1 FEZF1 RARA ZNF121 ATF7 FOS ETV6 IKZF2 RUNX3 RHBDF2 AANAT ENSG00000267543 SNHG16 TRIM65 GC17M076496 GC17P076469
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around AANAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the AANAT gene promoter:
  • deltaCREB
  • CREB
  • Pax-4a
  • E47
  • MZF-1
  • Pax-5
  • MIF-1
  • AREB6
  • Nkx6-1

Genomic Locations for AANAT Gene

Genomic Locations for AANAT Gene
17,938 bases
Plus strand
16,767 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for AANAT Gene

Genes around AANAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
AANAT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for AANAT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AANAT Gene

Proteins for AANAT Gene

  • Protein details for AANAT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Serotonin N-acetyltransferase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A0AVF2
    • J3KMZ5
    • Q562F4

    Protein attributes for AANAT Gene

    207 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23344 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer (By similarity). Interacts with several 14-3-3 proteins, including YWHAB, YWHAE, YWHAG and YWHAZ, preferentially when phosphorylated at Thr-31. Phosphorylation on Ser-205 also allows binding to YWHAZ, but with lower affinity. The interaction with YWHAZ considerably increases affinity for arylalkylamines and acetyl-CoA and protects the enzyme from dephosphorylation and proteasomal degradation (By similarity). It may also prevent thiol-dependent inactivation (By similarity).
    • Sequence=AAH69434.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for AANAT Gene


neXtProt entry for AANAT Gene

Post-translational modifications for AANAT Gene

  • cAMP-dependent phosphorylation on both N-terminal Thr-31 and C-terminal Ser-205 regulates AANAT activity by promoting interaction with 14-3-3 proteins.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for AANAT Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for AANAT Gene

Domains & Families for AANAT Gene

Gene Families for AANAT Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for AANAT Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the acetyltransferase family. AANAT subfamily.
  • Belongs to the acetyltransferase family. AANAT subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AANAT: view

Function for AANAT Gene

Molecular function for AANAT Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Controls the night/day rhythm of melatonin production in the pineal gland. Catalyzes the N-acetylation of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, the penultimate step in the synthesis of melatonin.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=0.13 mM for tryptamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11313340}; KM=2.6 mM for 5-hydroxytryptamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11313340}; KM=0.55 mM for phenylethylamine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11313340}; KM=10.6 mM for tyramine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11313340};
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase,23kDa,expressed in the pineal gland,penultimate step in melatonin synthesis,controlling the circadian rythm of production of melatonin,rhythmic activity controlled by ICER,an early response repressor

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for AANAT Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for AANAT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AANAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004059 aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity TAS --
GO:0004060 arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0008080 N-acetyltransferase activity IEA --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AANAT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AANAT: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for AANAT Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target AANAT

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for AANAT Gene

Localization for AANAT Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AANAT Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AANAT gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AANAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA,IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0048471 perinuclear region of cytoplasm IDA 11313340
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AANAT: view

Pathways & Interactions for AANAT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AANAT: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q16613-SNAT_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Aromatic compound metabolism; melatonin biosynthesis; melatonin from serotonin: step 1/2.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AANAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006474 N-terminal protein amino acid acetylation IDA 11313340
GO:0007623 circadian rhythm NAS 8661026
GO:0009416 response to light stimulus IBA --
GO:0009648 photoperiodism IEA --
GO:0010043 response to zinc ion IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AANAT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for AANAT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for AANAT Gene

(36) Drugs for AANAT Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
cannabidiol Approved, Investigational Pharma Partial agonist, Agonist, Antagonist, Channel blocker, Activator, Enzyme 0
Nabiximols Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme 0
Coa-S-Acetyl 5-Bromotryptamine Experimental Pharma Target 0
Coa-S-Acetyl Tryptamine Experimental Pharma Target 0
Coa-S-Trimethylene-Acetyl-Tryptamine Experimental Pharma Target 0

(19) Additional Compounds for AANAT Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • AcCoA
  • Acetyl coenzyme A
  • S-Acetyl-CoA
  • S-Acetyl-coenzyme A
  • Ac-CoA
  • N-(2-(5-Hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)acetamide
  • N-Acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine
  • 5-Hydroxy-N-acetyltryptamine
  • 5-Hydroxymelatonin
  • ASE
  • 2-(5-Methoxyindol-3-yl)ethylamine
  • 3-(2-Aminoethyl)-5-methoxyindole
  • 5-MeOT
  • 5-Methoxy-1H-indole-3-ethanamine
  • 5-MT
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AANAT: view

Transcripts for AANAT Gene

mRNA/cDNA for AANAT Gene

(3) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(16) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(4) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for AANAT Gene

Aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AANAT Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for AANAT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for AANAT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for AANAT Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AANAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x8.8).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of AANAT Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AANAT Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for AANAT Gene:

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in pineal gland and at lower levels in the retina. Weak expression in several brain regions and in the pituitary gland.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for AANAT Gene

  • Nervous system(4.6)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with AANAT: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for AANAT Gene

Orthologs for AANAT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for AANAT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AANAT 34 33
  • 98.39 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Aanat 33
  • 85.06 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Aanat 16 34 33
  • 84.56 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia AANAT 34 33
  • 84.54 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOC618594 33
  • 84.23 (n)
  • 77 (a)
-- 34
  • 77 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia AANAT 34
  • 68 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia AANAT 34
  • 67 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AANAT 34 33
  • 75.33 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia AANAT 34
  • 68 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia aanat 33
  • 73.33 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii aanat1 34 33
  • 66.17 (n)
aanat2 34
  • 58 (a)
zgc73074 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11691 33
Species where no ortholog for AANAT was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for AANAT Gene

Gene Tree for AANAT (if available)
Gene Tree for AANAT (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for AANAT: view image

Paralogs for AANAT Gene

No data available for Paralogs for AANAT Gene

Variants for AANAT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AANAT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1001896063 uncertain-significance, Howel-Evans syndrome 76,470,907(+) A/C downstream_transcript_variant
rs1009901117 uncertain-significance, Howel-Evans syndrome 76,470,931(+) G/A/C downstream_transcript_variant
rs111924263 benign, Howel-Evans syndrome 76,471,053(+) G/A/C downstream_transcript_variant
rs11553544 likely-benign, Howel-Evans syndrome 76,471,122(+) C/T downstream_transcript_variant
rs137910466 likely-benign, Howel-Evans syndrome 76,470,922(+) T/C downstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AANAT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1058263 CNV gain 25217958
nsv833549 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for AANAT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 83.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.59; 30.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for AANAT Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AANAT Gene

Disorders for AANAT Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for AANAT Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
dissociative amnesia
  • psychogenic amnesia
dissociative disorder
  • dissociative disease
evans' syndrome
  • evan's syndrome
  • pinealoma
advanced sleep phase syndrome
  • familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search AANAT in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for AANAT

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AANAT: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for AANAT Gene

Publications for AANAT Gene

  1. Significant association of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase ( AA-NAT) gene with delayed sleep phase syndrome. (PMID: 12736803) Hohjoh H … Tokunaga K (Neurogenetics 2003) 3 4 22 44 58
  2. The human serotonin N-acetyltransferase (EC gene (AANAT): structure, chromosomal localization, and tissue expression. (PMID: 8661026) Coon SL … Rodriguez IR (Genomics 1996) 2 3 4 22 58
  3. Association study of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase polymorphisms with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Han Chinese. (PMID: 18794762) Wang H … Qiu G (Spine 2008) 3 22 44 58
  4. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) genotype as a personal trait in melatonin synthesis. (PMID: 18569588) Blomeke B … Roemer HC (Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A 2008) 3 22 44 58
  5. A naturally occurring -263G/C variant of the human AA-NAT gene and overnight melatonin production. (PMID: 14728993) Ying GW … Lee EJ (Molecular genetics and metabolism 2004) 3 22 44 58

Products for AANAT Gene

Sources for AANAT Gene

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