Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for LDHA Gene

Aliases for LDHA Gene

  • Lactate Dehydrogenase A 2 3 5
  • Cell Proliferation-Inducing Gene 19 Protein 3 4
  • Renal Carcinoma Antigen NY-REN-59 3 4
  • LDH Muscle Subunit 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • LDH-A 3 4
  • LDH-M 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 133P 3
  • Proliferation-Inducing Gene 19 3
  • Lactate Dehydrogenase M 3
  • HEL-S-133P 3
  • EC 1.1.1 63
  • GSD11 3
  • PIG19 3
  • LDHM 3

External Ids for LDHA Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LDHA Gene

  • GC11P019537
  • GC11P019358
  • GC11P018455
  • GC11P018380
  • GC11P018372
  • GC11P018101

Summaries for LDHA Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LDHA Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the conversion of L-lactate and NAD to pyruvate and NADH in the final step of anaerobic glycolysis. The protein is found predominantly in muscle tissue and belongs to the lactate dehydrogenase family. Mutations in this gene have been linked to exertional myoglobinuria. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The human genome contains several non-transcribed pseudogenes of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

GeneCards Summary for LDHA Gene

LDHA (Lactate Dehydrogenase A) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LDHA include Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome and Glycogen Storage Disease Due To Lactate Dehydrogenase M-Subunit Deficiency. Among its related pathways are Glucose / Energy Metabolism and Glucagon signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and L-lactate dehydrogenase activity. An important paralog of this gene is LDHC.

Tocris Summary for LDHA Gene

Gene Wiki entry for LDHA Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LDHA Gene

Genomics for LDHA Gene

Regulatory Elements for LDHA Gene

Enhancers for LDHA Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around LDHA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for LDHA Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around LDHA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for LDHA Gene

18,394,388 bp from pter
18,408,425 bp from pter
14,038 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for LDHA Gene

Genes around LDHA on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LDHA Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LDHA Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LDHA Gene

Proteins for LDHA Gene

  • Protein details for LDHA Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DKQ2
    • B7Z5E3
    • D3DQY3
    • F8W819
    • Q53G53
    • Q6IBM7
    • Q6ZNV1
    • Q9UDE8
    • Q9UDE9

    Protein attributes for LDHA Gene

    332 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    36689 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LDHA Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for LDHA Gene


neXtProt entry for LDHA Gene

Proteomics data for LDHA Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for LDHA Gene

  • ISGylated.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 5, Lys 14, Lys 59, Lys 76, Lys 118, Lys 126, Lys 132, Lys 278, Lys 318, Lys 328, and Lys 27
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for LDHA (Lactate Dehydrogenase A/LDHA)
  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for LDHA (LDH-A)

Domains & Families for LDHA Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the LDH/MDH superfamily. LDH family.
  • Belongs to the LDH/MDH superfamily. LDH family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LDHA: view

No data available for Gene Families for LDHA Gene

Function for LDHA Gene

Molecular function for LDHA Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
lactate dehydrogenase A,glycolysis,energy pathway,putative up-regulated c-Myc target gene,
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
(S)-lactate + NAD(+) = pyruvate + NADH.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LDHA Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LDHA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA,IPI 23523103
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHA: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LDHA: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for LDHA Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for LDHA Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LDHA:
  • Ldha tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi

Animal Model Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LDHA Gene

Localization for LDHA Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LDHA Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for LDHA Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LDHA gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
mitochondrion 4
cytoskeleton 1
lysosome 1
peroxisome 1
plasma membrane 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LDHA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHA: view

Pathways & Interactions for LDHA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LDHA: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P00338-LDHA_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Fermentation; pyruvate fermentation to lactate; (S)-lactate from pyruvate: step 1/1.

SIGNOR curated interactions for LDHA Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LDHA Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006089 lactate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006090 pyruvate metabolic process TAS --
GO:0007584 response to nutrient IEA --
GO:0009749 response to glucose IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LDHA: view

Drugs & Compounds for LDHA Gene

(13) Drugs for LDHA Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Pyruvic acid Approved Nutra 0
Nicotinamide Experimental Nutra Target 850,854
Etheno-Nad Experimental Pharma Target 0
Oxamic Acid Experimental Pharma Target 0
2-Ketobutyric acid Experimental Pharma 0

(14) Additional Compounds for LDHA Gene - From: HMDB, Novoseek, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
2-Hydroxybutyric acid
  • (RS)-2-Hydroxybutyrate
  • (RS)-2-Hydroxybutyric acid
  • 2-Hydroxy-Butanoate
  • 2-Hydroxy-Butanoic acid
  • 2-Hydroxy-DL-Butyrate
3-Mercaptolactic acid
  • 3-Mercaptolactate
  • b-Mercaptolactate
  • b-Mercaptolactic acid
  • beta-Mercaptolactate
  • beta-Mercaptolactic acid
3-Mercaptopyruvic acid
  • 3-Mercapto-pyruvate
  • 3-Mercapto-pyruvic acid
  • 3-Mercaptopyruvate
  • 3-Mercaptopyruvic acid
  • beta-3-Mercapto-2-oxo-propanoate
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton

(3) Tocris Compounds for LDHA Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galloflavin Lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor; impairs aerobic glycolysis
GSK 2837808A Potent, selective LDHA inhibitor 1445879-21-9
NHI 2 LDHA inhibitor 1269802-97-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LDHA: view

Transcripts for LDHA Gene

Unigene Clusters for LDHA Gene

Lactate dehydrogenase A:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LDHA Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - -

Relevant External Links for LDHA Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LDHA Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for LDHA Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LDHA Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Tonsil (7.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for LDHA Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LDHA Gene Hs.2795

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LDHA: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LDHA Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LDHA Gene

Orthologs for LDHA Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for LDHA Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LDHA 35
  • 91.97 (n)
  • 93.67 (a)
  • 94 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LDHA 35
  • 93.17 (n)
  • 94.46 (a)
-- 36
  • 87 (a)
-- 36
  • 87 (a)
-- 36
  • 94 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ldha 35
  • 84.49 (n)
  • 90.86 (a)
Ldha 16
Ldha 36
  • 91 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LDHA 35
  • 99.5 (n)
  • 99.7 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 90 (a)
-- 36
  • 88 (a)
-- 36
  • 79 (a)
-- 36
  • 72 (a)
-- 36
  • 77 (a)
-- 36
  • 82 (a)
  • 91 (a)
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LDHA 36
  • 75 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LDHA 35
  • 79.6 (n)
  • 85.15 (a)
  • 85 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 86 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ldha 35
  • 74.1 (n)
  • 84.64 (a)
MGC76171 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia ldha-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ldha 35
  • 69.78 (n)
  • 76.51 (a)
ldha 36
  • 76 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG13334 37
  • 40 (a)
ImpL3 37
  • 59 (a)
ImpL3 35
  • 59.04 (n)
  • 59.94 (a)
CG13334 36
  • 37 (a)
ImpL3 36
  • 61 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004880 35
  • 58.94 (n)
  • 60.24 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ldh-1 37
  • 61 (a)
ldh-1 35
  • 59.23 (n)
  • 59.02 (a)
ldh-1 36
  • 58 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT4G17260 35
  • 54.56 (n)
  • 54.34 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0105400 35
  • 52.44 (n)
  • 56.67 (a)
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.10337 35
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.3533 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11301 36
  • 56 (a)
Species with no ortholog for LDHA:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for LDHA Gene

Gene Tree for LDHA (if available)
Gene Tree for LDHA (if available)

Paralogs for LDHA Gene

Paralogs for LDHA Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LDHA: view

Variants for LDHA Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LDHA Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_004180 -
VAR_004181 -
VAR_059374 -
rs1830425 -- 18,397,885(+) AGAAA(C/T)GGATT intron-variant
rs1830426 -- 18,397,987(+) TAATA(A/C/T)ACCAA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LDHA Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv509392 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv510999 CNV Complex 20534489
esv2744169 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv39368 CNV Loss 16902084

Variation tolerance for LDHA Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 55.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.20; 24.22% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for LDHA Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LDHA Gene

Disorders for LDHA Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(13) MalaCards diseases for LDHA Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, DISEASES, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LDHA in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Glycogen storage disease 11 (GSD11) [MIM:612933]: A metabolic disorder that results in exertional myoglobinuria, pain, cramps and easy fatigue. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:2334430}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for LDHA Gene

myoglobinuria,exertional and/or excessive fatigability

Relevant External Links for LDHA

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LDHA: view

Publications for LDHA Gene

  1. Genomic organization of human lactate dehydrogenase-A gene. (PMID: 3000353) Chung F.Z. … Li S.S.-L. (Biochem. J. 1985) 2 3 4 67
  2. Upregulation of lactate dehydrogenase A by ErbB2 through heat shock factor 1 promotes breast cancer cell glycolysis and growth. (PMID: 19668225) Zhao Y.H. … Tan M. (Oncogene 2009) 3 23
  3. Attenuation of LDH-A expression uncovers a link between glycolysis, mitochondrial physiology, and tumor maintenance. (PMID: 16766262) Fantin V.R. … Leder P. (Cancer Cell 2006) 3 23
  4. Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. (PMID: 17016423) Imming P. … Meyer A. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006) 25 26
  5. How many drug targets are there? (PMID: 17139284) Overington J.P. … Hopkins A.L. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006) 25 26

Products for LDHA Gene

Sources for LDHA Gene