Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for KRAS Gene

Aliases for KRAS Gene

  • Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 3 5
  • V-Ki-Ras2 Kirsten Rat Sarcoma 2 Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 3
  • C-Ki-Ras 3 4
  • K-Ras 2 3 4
  • C-K-RAS 3 4
  • KI-RAS 3 4
  • KRAS2 3 4
  • RASK2 3 4
  • V-Ki-Ras2 Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2
  • Cellular C-Ki-Ras2 Proto-Oncogene 3
  • Transforming Protein P21 3
  • PR310 C-K-Ras Oncogene 3
  • C-Kirsten-Ras Protein 3
  • K-Ras P21 Protein 3
  • Oncogene KRAS2 3
  • K-RAS2A 3
  • K-RAS2B 3
  • K-RAS4A 3
  • K-RAS4B 3
  • KRAS1 3
  • CFC2 3
  • RALD 3
  • NS3 3
  • NS 3

External Ids for KRAS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for KRAS Gene

  • KRAS2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for KRAS Gene

  • GC12M025250
  • GC12M025358
  • GC12M025128

Summaries for KRAS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for KRAS Gene

  • This gene, a Kirsten ras oncogene homolog from the mammalian ras gene family, encodes a protein that is a member of the small GTPase superfamily. A single amino acid substitution is responsible for an activating mutation. The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal carcinoma. Alternative splicing leads to variants encoding two isoforms that differ in the C-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for KRAS Gene

KRAS (Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KRAS include noonan syndrome 3 and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2. Among its related pathways are Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation and Sertoli-Sertoli Cell Junction Dynamics. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and protein complex binding. An important paralog of this gene is HRAS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRAS Gene

  • Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity. Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation (PubMed:23698361, PubMed:22711838). Plays a role in promoting oncogenic events by inducing transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in a ZNF304-dependent manner (PubMed:24623306).

Gene Wiki entry for KRAS Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for KRAS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for KRAS Gene

Genomics for KRAS Gene

Regulatory Elements for KRAS Gene

Promoters for KRAS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around KRAS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the KRAS gene promoter:

Genomic Location for KRAS Gene

25,204,789 bp from pter
25,250,936 bp from pter
46,148 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for KRAS Gene

Genes around KRAS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
KRAS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for KRAS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for KRAS Gene

Proteins for KRAS Gene

  • Protein details for KRAS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    GTPase KRas
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K8Z5
    • B0LPF9
    • P01118
    • Q96D10

    Protein attributes for KRAS Gene

    189 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21656 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PHLPP. Interacts (active GTP-bound form preferentially) with RGS14 (By similarity). Interacts (when farnesylated) with PDE6D; this promotes dissociation from the cell membrane (PubMed:23698361). Interacts with SOS1 (PubMed:22431598).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for KRAS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for KRAS Gene


neXtProt entry for KRAS Gene

Proteomics data for KRAS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for KRAS Gene

  • Acetylation at Lys-104 prevents interaction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 88, Lys 117, and Lys 128
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for KRAS Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for KRAS (KRas)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for KRAS Gene

Domains & Families for KRAS Gene

Gene Families for KRAS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for KRAS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with KRAS: view

Function for KRAS Gene

Molecular function for KRAS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Alternates between an inactive form bound to GDP and an active form bound to GTP. Activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) and inactivated by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Interaction with SOS1 promotes exchange of bound GDP by GTP.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity. Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation (PubMed:23698361, PubMed:22711838). Plays a role in promoting oncogenic events by inducing transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in a ZNF304-dependent manner (PubMed:24623306).
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with KRAS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for KRAS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for KRAS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for KRAS:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for KRAS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target KRAS

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for KRAS Gene

Localization for KRAS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRAS Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Cytoplasm, cytosol.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for KRAS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for KRAS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
plasma membrane 5
mitochondrion 4
nucleus 3
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
extracellular 2
endosome 1
golgi apparatus 1
lysosome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for KRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRAS: view

Pathways & Interactions for KRAS Gene

SuperPathways for KRAS Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling
2 IL-2 Pathway
3 IL-7 Signaling Pathways
4 Signaling by ERBB2
5 Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with KRAS: view

Pathways by source for KRAS Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for KRAS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for KRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade TAS --
GO:0000186 activation of MAPKK activity TAS --
GO:0002223 stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0006886 intracellular protein transport IEA --
GO:0006913 nucleocytoplasmic transport IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRAS: view

Drugs & Compounds for KRAS Gene

(95) Drugs for KRAS Gene - From: DGIdb, Novoseek, ApexBio, PharmGKB, ClinicalTrials, DrugBank, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Cetuximab Approved Pharma Antibody, Biomarker, inhibitor EGFR Inhibitors, Therapeutic Antibodies, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors 713
Panitumumab Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker, antibody EGFR inhibitor, EGFR Inhibitors, Therapeutic Antibodies, Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors 0
Everolimus Approved Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker mTOR inhibitor, mTOR Inhibitors, Kinase Inhibitors, Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors 1797
regorafenib Approved Pharma inhibitor Inhibitor of VEGFR/PDGFR/FGFR/mutant kit/RET/Raf-1, Kinase Inhibitors, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 0
Trametinib Approved Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker MEK 1/2 inhibitor, MEK Inhibitors, Kinase Inhibitors, Mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors 111

(19) Additional Compounds for KRAS Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(2) ApexBio Compounds for KRAS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
K-Ras(G12C) inhibitor 12 1469337-95-8
Salirasib Inhibitor of active Ras protein 162520-00-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with KRAS: view

Transcripts for KRAS Gene

Unigene Clusters for KRAS Gene

V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for KRAS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for KRAS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for KRAS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for KRAS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for KRAS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (12.2) and Tlymphocyte (8.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for KRAS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for KRAS Gene Hs.505033

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with KRAS: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for KRAS Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for KRAS Gene

Orthologs for KRAS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for KRAS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia KRAS 35
  • 95.21 (n)
  • 97.01 (a)
  • 91 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia KRAS 35
  • 98.59 (n)
  • 98.94 (a)
K-RAS 36
  • 91 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Kras 35
  • 87.06 (n)
  • 88.83 (a)
Kras 16
Kras 36
  • 89 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia KRAS 35
  • 99.82 (n)
  • 100 (a)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Kras 35
  • 87.77 (n)
  • 89.36 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 90 (a)
  • 91 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia KRAS 36
  • 91 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves KRAS 35
  • 83.69 (n)
  • 90.96 (a)
  • 91 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 89 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100485959 35
  • 80.95 (n)
  • 97.88 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24980 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii kras 35
  • 74.82 (n)
  • 88.3 (a)
kras 36
  • 88 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002219 35
  • 69.7 (n)
  • 85.45 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ras85D 35
  • 70.71 (n)
  • 85.45 (a)
Ras85D 36
  • 76 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea let-60 35
  • 65.58 (n)
  • 76.63 (a)
let-60 36
  • 76 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RAS1 36
  • 35 (a)
RAS2 36
  • 34 (a)
Species with no ortholog for KRAS:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for KRAS Gene

Gene Tree for KRAS (if available)
Gene Tree for KRAS (if available)

Paralogs for KRAS Gene

Paralogs for KRAS Gene Pseudogenes for KRAS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with KRAS: view

Variants for KRAS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for KRAS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_006839 Lung carcinoma
VAR_006840 Gastric cancer (GASC)
VAR_006840 Lung carcinoma
rs17851045 Lung carcinoma 25,227,341(-) GGTCA(A/C/T)GAGGA reference, missense
VAR_016026 Pancreatic carcinoma

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for KRAS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv898922 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv1394n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv470279 CNV Gain 18288195
nsv898927 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv522233 CNV Loss 19592680

Variation tolerance for KRAS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 37.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.13; 2.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for KRAS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRAS Gene

Disorders for KRAS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(130) MalaCards diseases for KRAS Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
noonan syndrome 3
  • kras gene related noonan syndrome
cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2
  • cfc2
pancreatic cancer
  • pancreatic carcinoma, somatic
schimmelpenning-feuerstein-mims syndrome, somatic mosaic
  • ss
lung cancer
  • lung cancer, protection against
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search KRAS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2 (CFC2) [MIM:615278]: A form of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects and mental retardation. Heart defects include pulmonic stenosis, atrial septal defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Some affected individuals present with ectodermal abnormalities such as sparse, friable hair, hyperkeratotic skin lesions and a generalized ichthyosis-like condition. Typical facial features are similar to Noonan syndrome. They include high forehead with bitemporal constriction, hypoplastic supraorbital ridges, downslanting palpebral fissures, a depressed nasal bridge, and posteriorly angulated ears with prominent helices. CFC2 patients often do not have the skin abnormalities, such as ichthyosis, hyperkeratosis, and hemangioma observed in CFC1. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16474404, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16474405, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17056636, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21797849}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]: A malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions, resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14534542, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3034404, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7773929}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Leukemia, acute myelogenous (AML) [MIM:601626]: A subtype of acute leukemia, a cancer of the white blood cells. AML is a malignant disease of bone marrow characterized by maturational arrest of hematopoietic precursors at an early stage of development. Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts occurs in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myelogenous leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8955068}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic (JMML) [MIM:607785]: An aggressive pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative disorder characterized by malignant transformation in the hematopoietic stem cell compartment with proliferation of differentiated progeny. Patients have splenomegaly, enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, and hemorrhages. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17332249}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3) [MIM:609942]: A form of Noonan syndrome, a disease characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphic features such as hypertelorism, a downward eyeslant and low-set posteriorly rotated ears, and a high incidence of congenital heart defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Other features can include a short neck with webbing or redundancy of skin, deafness, motor delay, variable intellectual deficits, multiple skeletal defects, cryptorchidism, and bleeding diathesis. Individuals with Noonan syndrome are at risk of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by excessive production of myelomonocytic cells. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16474405, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16773572, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17056636, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17468812, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19396835}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Note=Defects in KRAS are a cause of pylocytic astrocytoma (PA). Pylocytic astrocytomas are neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16247081}.
  • Note=KRAS mutations are involved in cancer development. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14534542, ECO:0000269 PubMed:1553789, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16533793, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24623306, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3034404, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3627975, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6092920, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6695174, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7773929}.

Relevant External Links for KRAS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with KRAS: view

No data available for Genatlas for KRAS Gene

Publications for KRAS Gene

  1. [Effect of KRAS mutation on efficacy of Cetuximab combined with chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer patients]. (PMID: 19921572) Pu X.X. … Lin T.Y. (Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2009) 3 23 48 67
  2. KRAS mutation correlates with accelerated metastatic progression in patients with colorectal liver metastases. (PMID: 19727962) Nash G.M. … Paty P.B. (Ann. Surg. Oncol. 2010) 3 23
  3. KRAS mutation and microsatellite instability: two genetic markers of early tumor development that influence the prognosis of colorectal cancer. (PMID: 19813061) Nash G.M. … Paty P.B. (Ann. Surg. Oncol. 2010) 3 23
  4. Clinical outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving front-line chemotherapy according to EGFR and K-RAS mutation status. (PMID: 19854533) Kalikaki A. … Voutsina A. (Lung Cancer 2010) 3 23
  5. KRAS and BRAF mutations in patients with rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. (PMID: 19913317) Gaedcke J. … Ghadimi M. (Radiother Oncol 2010) 3 23

Products for KRAS Gene

Sources for KRAS Gene

Back to Top