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Aliases for INS Gene

Aliases for INS Gene

  • Insulin 2 3
  • MODY10 3 6
  • IDDM2 3 6
  • Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus 2 2
  • Preproinsulin 3
  • Proinsulin 3
  • IDDM1 3
  • IDDM 3
  • ILPR 3
  • IRDN 3

External Ids for INS Gene

Previous Symbols for INS Gene

  • IDDM2
  • IDDM1

Summaries for INS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for INS Gene

  • After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

GeneCards Summary for INS Gene

INS (Insulin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with INS include hyperproinsulinemia, familial and hair-an syndrome. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Ras signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and protease binding. An important paralog of this gene is INS-IGF2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for INS Gene

  • Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver

Gene Wiki entry for INS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for INS Gene

Genomics for INS Gene

Genomic Location for INS Gene

2,159,779 bp from pter
2,161,341 bp from pter
1,563 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for INS Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for INS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for INS Gene

Regulatory Elements for INS Gene

Proteins for INS Gene

  • Protein details for INS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5EEX2

    Protein attributes for INS Gene

    110 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11981 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of a B chain and an A chain linked by two disulfide bonds
    • Sequence=AAA59179.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for INS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for INS Gene


neXtProt entry for INS Gene

Proteomics data for INS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for INS Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for INS Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for INS Gene

Domains for INS Gene

Protein Domains for INS Gene


  • Belongs to the insulin family.:
    • P01308
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with INS: view

No data available for Gene Families for INS Gene

Function for INS Gene

Molecular function for INS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: insulin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for INS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002020 protease binding IPI 20082125
GO:0005158 insulin receptor binding IPI 8452530
GO:0005159 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding IPI 8452530
GO:0005179 hormone activity NAS 14986111
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 9388210
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with INS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with INS: view

Animal Models for INS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for INS:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for INS Gene

Localization for INS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for INS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for INS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for INS gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
endosome 4
golgi apparatus 4
plasma membrane 4
cytoskeleton 3
cytosol 3
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
peroxisome 3
lysosome 2
vacuole 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for INS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 9667398
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
GO:0005796 Golgi lumen TAS --
GO:0031904 endosome lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with INS: view

Pathways for INS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with INS: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for INS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade IDA 11278339
GO:0002674 negative regulation of acute inflammatory response IDA 11443198
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006112 energy reserve metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated NAS 12881524
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with INS: view

Compounds for INS Gene


Pharmaceutical: Available under the names Humulin or Humalog (Eli Lilly) and Novolin (Novo Nordisk). Used in the treatment of diabetes. Humalog is an insulin analog with 52-Lys-Pro-53 instead of 52-Pro-Lys-53

(2) Drugbank Compounds for INS Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
108-39-4 target

(128) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for INS Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glucose 98.1 754
c-peptide 96 496
metformin 93.1 486
cholesterol 90.1 371
sulfonylurea 88.7 283
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with INS: view

Transcripts for INS Gene

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for INS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for INS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for INS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for INS Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for INS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (52.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for INS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with INS: view

Orthologs for INS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for INS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia INS 36
  • 98.18 (n)
  • 98.18 (a)
INS 37
  • 98 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia INS 37
  • 84 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia INS 36
  • 86.06 (n)
  • 88.18 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ins1 37
  • 80 (a)
Ins2 36
  • 82.42 (n)
  • 81.82 (a)
Ins2 16
Ins2 37
  • 82 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ins2 36
  • 81.21 (n)
  • 82.73 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves INS 36
  • 65.42 (n)
  • 65.42 (a)
INS 37
  • 64 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 37
  • 55 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ins 36
  • 64.08 (n)
  • 61.17 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ins 36
  • 61.78 (n)
  • 58.67 (a)
ins 37
  • 44 (a)
insb 37
  • 31 (a)
Species with no ortholog for INS:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for INS Gene

Gene Tree for INS (if available)
Gene Tree for INS (if available)

Paralogs for INS Gene

Paralogs for INS Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for INS Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with INS: view

Variants for INS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for INS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
VAR_003971 Hyperproinsulinemia, familial (FHPRI)
VAR_003972 -
VAR_003973 -
VAR_003974 Hyperproinsulinemia, familial (FHPRI)
VAR_003975 Hyperproinsulinemia, familial (FHPRI)

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for INS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv467645 CNV Gain 19166990
dgv992n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv896776 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv994n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv995n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv997n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv896793 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv896796 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv896797 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv896798 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for INS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for INS Gene

(3) OMIM Diseases for INS Gene (176730)


  • Hyperproinsulinemia (HPRI) [MIM:616214]: An autosomal dominant condition characterized by elevated levels of serum proinsulin-like material. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1601997, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2196279, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3470784, ECO:0000269 PubMed:4019786}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]: A multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical features are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18192540}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]: A rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17855560, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18162506}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Maturity-onset diabetes of the young 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]: A form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18162506, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18192540, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20226046}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(96) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for INS Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
insulin resistance 99 941
insulin sensitivity 98 799
diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent 97.1 391
niddm 96.3 492
hyperinsulinemia 96.1 361

Genatlas disease for INS Gene

diabetes,with hyperproinsulinemia,putative susceptibility factor for obesity in association with IgF2 in British population

Relevant External Links for INS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with INS: view

Publications for INS Gene

  1. Genotypic and phenotypic differences between Arabian and Scandinavian women with gestational diabetes mellitus. (PMID: 15095040) Shaat N. … Groop L. (Diabetologia 2004) 3 23 49
  2. Polymorphisms in candidate genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Mexican population with metabolic syndrome findings. (PMID: 14693412) SA!nchez-Corona J. … Hanson R.L. (Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2004) 3 23 49
  3. Polymorphism of INS VNTR is associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and postprandial C-peptide in patients with onset of diabetes after 35 years of age. (PMID: 15046555) MatejkovA!-BehanovA! M. … BendlovA! B. (Physiol Res 2004) 3 23 49
  4. Insulinomas and expression of an insulin splice variant. (PMID: 15070567) Minn A.H. … Shalev A. (Lancet 2004) 3 4 23
  5. No association of INS-VNTR genotype and IAA autoantibodies. (PMID: 15699505) PAcrez de Nanclares G. … Castano L. (Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2004) 3 23 49

Products for INS Gene

Sources for INS Gene

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