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Aliases for MELK Gene

Aliases for MELK Gene

  • Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase 2 3 5
  • Tyrosine-Protein Kinase MELK 3 4
  • Protein Kinase PK38 3 4
  • Protein Kinase Eg3 3 4
  • PEg3 Kinase 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 63
  • HPK38 3 4
  • EC 2.7.10.2 4
  • EC 2.7.11 63
  • KIAA0175 4
  • HMELK 4

External Ids for MELK Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MELK Gene

  • GC09P036885
  • GC09P036742
  • GC09P036562

Summaries for MELK Gene

GeneCards Summary for MELK Gene

MELK (Maternal Embryonic Leucine Zipper Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is SNRK.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MELK Gene

  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell cycle regulation, self-renewal of stem cells, apoptosis and splicing regulation. Has a broad substrate specificity; phosphorylates BCL2L14, CDC25B, MAP3K5/ASK1 and ZNF622. Acts as an activator of apoptosis by phosphorylating and activating MAP3K5/ASK1. Acts as a regulator of cell cycle, notably by mediating phosphorylation of CDC25B, promoting localization of CDC25B to the centrosome and the spindle poles during mitosis. Plays a key role in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Required for proliferation of embryonic and postnatal multipotent neural progenitors. Phosphorylates and inhibits BCL2L14, possibly leading to affect mammary carcinogenesis by mediating inhibition of the pro-apoptotic function of BCL2L14. Also involved in the inhibition of spliceosome assembly during mitosis by phosphorylating ZNF622, thereby contributing to its redirection to the nucleus. May also play a role in primitive hematopoiesis.

Gene Wiki entry for MELK Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MELK Gene

Genomics for MELK Gene

Regulatory Elements for MELK Gene

Promoters for MELK Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around MELK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for MELK Gene

Chromosome:
9
Start:
36,572,862 bp from pter
End:
36,677,683 bp from pter
Size:
104,822 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for MELK Gene

Genes around MELK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MELK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MELK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MELK Gene

Proteins for MELK Gene

  • Protein details for MELK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q14680-MELK_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase
    Protein Accession:
    Q14680
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6P3A7
    • A6P3A8
    • B1AMQ6
    • B7Z1E6
    • B7Z5M5
    • B7Z6Q7
    • B7Z6R8
    • B7Z6Y0
    • B7Z7Q1
    • D3DRP8
    • F5H0Y0
    • F5H2R4
    • F5H689
    • Q7L3C3

    Protein attributes for MELK Gene

    Size:
    651 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    74642 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. Interacts with ZNF622 and PPP1R8.
    Miscellaneous:
    • Potential therapeutic target for treatment of somatic tumors, such as brain and breast cancers, down-regulation of MELK inhibiting tumorigenesis (PubMed:17960622, PubMed:20861186).
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=BAA11492.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MELK Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MELK Gene

neXtProt entry for MELK Gene

Proteomics data for MELK Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for MELK Gene

Post-translational modifications for MELK Gene

  • Autophosphorylated: autophosphorylation of the T-loop at Thr-167 and Ser-171 is required for activation. Thr-478 phosphorylation during mitosis promotes interaction with PPP1R8 (Probable).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 44, Lys 395, Lys 406, Lys 434, Lys 536, Lys 597, and Lys 650
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for MELK (MELK)

Domains & Families for MELK Gene

Gene Families for MELK Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q14680

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

MELK_HUMAN :
  • The KA1 domain mediates binding to phospholipids and targeting to membranes.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. SNF1 subfamily.
Domain:
  • The KA1 domain mediates binding to phospholipids and targeting to membranes.
  • Contains 1 KA1 (kinase-associated) domain.
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. SNF1 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MELK: view

Function for MELK Gene

Molecular function for MELK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Activated by autophosphorylation of the T-loop at Thr-167 and Ser-171: in contrast to other members of the SNF1 subfamily, phosphorylation at Thr-167 is not mediated by STK11/LKB1 but via autophosphorylation instead. Inhibited by calcium-binding. Kinase activity is also regulated by reducing agents: dithiothreitol (DTT) or reduced glutathione are required for kinase activity in vitro; such dependence is however not due to the presence of disulfide bonds.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell cycle regulation, self-renewal of stem cells, apoptosis and splicing regulation. Has a broad substrate specificity; phosphorylates BCL2L14, CDC25B, MAP3K5/ASK1 and ZNF622. Acts as an activator of apoptosis by phosphorylating and activating MAP3K5/ASK1. Acts as a regulator of cell cycle, notably by mediating phosphorylation of CDC25B, promoting localization of CDC25B to the centrosome and the spindle poles during mitosis. Plays a key role in cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. Required for proliferation of embryonic and postnatal multipotent neural progenitors. Phosphorylates and inhibits BCL2L14, possibly leading to affect mammary carcinogenesis by mediating inhibition of the pro-apoptotic function of BCL2L14. Also involved in the inhibition of spliceosome assembly during mitosis by phosphorylating ZNF622, thereby contributing to its redirection to the nucleus. May also play a role in primitive hematopoiesis.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
Up-regulated in many cancers cells. Up-regulated upon treatment with radiation or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in colorectal cancer cells, suggesting that it might be associated with increased resistance of colorectal cells against radiation and 5-FU. Down-regulated upon siomycin A, a thiazole antibiotic, treatment, leading to inhibit tumor growth in vivo.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MELK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MELK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IDA 12400006
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MELK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MELK: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for MELK

miRNA for MELK Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MELK

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MELK Gene

Localization for MELK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MELK Gene

Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for MELK Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MELK gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
golgi apparatus 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MELK Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MELK Gene

SuperPathways for MELK Gene

No Data Available

SIGNOR curated interactions for MELK Gene

Activates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MELK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS 12400006
GO:0006915 apoptotic process IDA 17280616
GO:0035556 intracellular signal transduction IBA --
GO:0046777 protein autophosphorylation IDA 16216881
GO:0061351 neural precursor cell proliferation ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MELK: view

No data available for Pathways by source for MELK Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MELK Gene

(2) Drugs for MELK Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0

(1) Additional Compounds for MELK Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MELK: view

Transcripts for MELK Gene

Unigene Clusters for MELK Gene

Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MELK Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4:
SP5: -
SP6: - - -

Relevant External Links for MELK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
MELK
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
MELK

Expression for MELK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MELK Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MELK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x5.2) and Esophagus - Mucosa (x5.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MELK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (68.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for MELK Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MELK Gene Hs.184339

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MELK Gene

Q14680-MELK_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in placenta, kidney, thymus, testis, ovary and intestine.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MELK: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MELK Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for MELK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for MELK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MELK 35
  • 90.97 (n)
  • 89.54 (a)
MELK 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MELK 35
  • 92.68 (n)
  • 91.71 (a)
MELK 36
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Melk 35
  • 84.19 (n)
  • 84.29 (a)
Melk 16
Melk 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MELK 35
  • 99.39 (n)
  • 99.54 (a)
MELK 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Melk 35
  • 88.25 (n)
  • 91.62 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MELK 36
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MELK 36
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MELK 35
  • 67.7 (n)
  • 62.89 (a)
-- 36
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
MELK 36
  • 61 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MELK 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia melk 35
  • 67.08 (n)
  • 66.77 (a)
Str.7658 35
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia LOC397927 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii melk 35
  • 61.06 (n)
  • 60.85 (a)
wufb71b01 35
melk 36
  • 57 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG3105 37
  • 32 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea pig-1 35
  • 49.56 (n)
  • 43.06 (a)
pig-1 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToOne
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes SNF1 36
  • 23 (a)
OneToMany
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons CIPK7 35
  • 50.91 (n)
  • 44.53 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 46 (a)
OneToOne
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11515 35
Species with no ortholog for MELK:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MELK Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for MELK (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for MELK (if available)

Paralogs for MELK Gene

Paralogs for MELK Gene

(22) SIMAP similar genes for MELK Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MELK: view

Variants for MELK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MELK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs35233455 - 36,589,558(+) CAAAA(C/T)GGAGA intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs35142210 - 36,607,663(+) ATACA(A/G)GAAGA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs34655121 - 36,651,822(+) TTTAA(A/G)GCTTT nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
rs55845414 - 36,651,867(+) ATTCA(C/T)AGACA nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
VAR_040798 An ovarian mucinous carcinoma sample

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MELK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv831550 CNV Loss 17160897
esv2738428 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2667249 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv6530 CNV Loss 18451855
esv272822 CNV Insertion 20981092

Variation tolerance for MELK Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 29.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.61; 65.39% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MELK Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
MELK
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
MELK

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MELK Gene

Disorders for MELK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

MELK_HUMAN
  • Note=Defects in MELK are associated with some cancers, such as brain or breast cancers. Expression is dramatically increased in aggressive undifferentiated tumors, correlating with poor patient outcome in breast and brain cancers, suggesting a role in tumor-initiating cells and proliferation via its function in cell proliferation regulation.

Relevant External Links for MELK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
MELK
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
MELK

No disorders were found for MELK Gene.

No data available for MalaCards and Genatlas for MELK Gene

Publications for MELK Gene

  1. Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. V. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0161-KIAA0200) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1. (PMID: 8724849) Nagase T. … Nomura N. (DNA Res. 1996) 2 3 4 67
  2. Dysregulated expression of Fau and MELK is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. (PMID: 19671159) Pickard M.R. … Williams G.T. (Breast Cancer Res. 2009) 3 23
  3. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase is a key regulator of the proliferation of malignant brain tumors, including brain tumor stem cells. (PMID: 17722061) Nakano I. … Kornblum H.I. (J. Neurosci. Res. 2008) 3 23
  4. Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase transcript abundance correlates with malignancy grade in human astrocytomas. (PMID: 17960622) Marie S.K. … Caballero O.L. (Int. J. Cancer 2008) 3 23
  5. Involvement of maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) in mammary carcinogenesis through interaction with Bcl-G, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. (PMID: 17280616) Lin M.L. … Katagiri T. (Breast Cancer Res. 2007) 3 23

Products for MELK Gene

Sources for MELK Gene

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