Aliases for CDK1 Gene
External Ids for CDK1 Gene
Previous Symbols for CDK1 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as M-phase promoting factor (MPF), which is essential for G1/S and G2/M phase transitions of eukaryotic cell cycle. Mitotic cyclins stably associate with this protein and function as regulatory subunits. The kinase activity of this protein is controlled by cyclin accumulation and destruction through the cell cycle. The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of this protein also play important regulatory roles in cell cycle control. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
GeneCards Summary for CDK1 Gene
CDK1 (Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CDK1 include thyroid lymphoma and melanoma. Among its related pathways are PI-3K cascade and PI-3K cascade. GO annotations related to this gene include protein kinase activity and RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CDK4.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CDK1 Gene
Plays a key role in the control of the eukaryotic cell cycle by modulating the centrosome cycle as well as mitotic onset; promotes G2-M transition, and regulates G1 progress and G1-S transition via association with multiple interphase cyclins. Required in higher cells for entry into S-phase and mitosis. Phosphorylates PARVA/actopaxin, APC, AMPH, APC, BARD1, Bcl-xL/BCL2L1, BRCA2, CALD1, CASP8, CDC7, CDC20, CDC25A, CDC25C, CC2D1A, CSNK2 proteins/CKII, FZR1/CDH1, CDK7, CEBPB, CHAMP1, DMD/dystrophin, EEF1 proteins/EF-1, EZH2, KIF11/EG5, EGFR, FANCG, FOS, GFAP, GOLGA2/GM130, GRASP1, UBE2A/hHR6A, HIST1H1 proteins/histone H1, HMGA1, HIVEP3/KRC, LMNA, LMNB, LMNC, LBR, LATS1, MAP1B, MAP4, MARCKS, MCM2, MCM4, MKLP1, MYB, NEFH, NFIC, NPC/nuclear pore complex, PITPNM1/NIR2, NPM1, NCL, NUCKS1, NPM1/numatrin, ORC1, PRKAR2A, EEF1E1/p18, EIF3F/p47, p53/TP53, NONO/p54NRB, PAPOLA, PLEC/plectin, RB1, UL40/R2, RAB4A, RAP1GAP, RCC1, RPS6KB1/S6K1, KHDRBS1/SAM68, ESPL1, SKI, BIRC5/survivin, STIP1, TEX14, beta-tubulins, MAPT/TAU, NEDD1, VIM/vimentin, TK1, FOXO1, RUNX1/AML1, SIRT2 and RUNX2. CDK1/CDC2-cyclin-B controls pronuclear union in interphase fertilized eggs. Essential for early stages of embryonic development. During G2 and early mitosis, CDC25A/B/C-mediated dephosphorylation activates CDK1/cyclin complexes which phosphorylate several substrates that trigger at least centrosome separation, Golgi dynamics, nuclear envelope breakdown and chromosome condensation. Once chromosomes are condensed and aligned at the metaphase plate, CDK1 activity is switched off by WEE1- and PKMYT1-mediated phosphorylation to allow sister chromatid separation, chromosome decondensation, reformation of the nuclear envelope and cytokinesis. Inactivated by PKR/EIF2AK2- and WEE1-mediated phosphorylation upon DNA damage to stop cell cycle and genome replication at the G2 checkpoint thus facilitating DNA repair. Reactivated after successful DNA repair through WIP1-dependent signaling leading to CDC25A/B/C-mediated dephosphorylation and restoring cell cycle progression. In proliferating cells, CDK1-mediated FOXO1 phosphorylation at the G2-M phase represses FOXO1 interaction with 14-3-3 proteins and thereby promotes FOXO1 nuclear accumulation and transcription factor activity, leading to cell death of postmitotic neurons. The phosphorylation of beta-tubulins regulates microtubule dynamics during mitosis. NEDD1 phosphorylation promotes PLK1-mediated NEDD1 phosphorylation and subsequent targeting of the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC) to the centrosome, an important step for spindle formation. In addition, CC2D1A phosphorylation regulates CC2D1A spindle pole localization and association with SCC1/RAD21 and centriole cohesion during mitosis. The phosphorylation of Bcl-xL/BCL2L1 after prolongated G2 arrest upon DNA damage triggers apoptosis. In contrast, CASP8 phosphorylation during mitosis prevents its activation by proteolysis and subsequent apoptosis. This phosphorylation occurs in cancer cell lines, as well as in primary breast tissues and lymphocytes. EZH2 phosphorylation promotes H3K27me3 maintenance and epigenetic gene silencing. CALD1 phosphorylation promotes Schwann cell migration during peripheral nerve regeneration.
Cdks (cyclin-dependent kinases) are heteromeric serine/threonine kinases that control progression through the cell cycle in concert with their regulatory subunits, the cyclins. Although there are 12 different cdk genes, only 5 have been shown to directly drive the cell cycle (Cdk1, -2, -3, -4, and -6). Following extracellular mitogenic stimuli, cyclin D gene expression is upregulated. Cdk4 forms a complex with cyclin D and phosphorylates Rb protein, leading to liberation of the transcription factor E2F. E2F induces transcription of genes including cyclins A and E, DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase. Cdk4-cyclin E complexes form and initiate G1/S transition. Subsequently, Cdk1-cyclin B complexes form and induce G2/M phase transition. Cdk1-cyclin B activation induces the breakdown of the nuclear envelope and the initiation of mitosis. Cdks are constitutively expressed and are regulated by several kinases and phosphastases, including Wee1, CDK-activating kinase and Cdc25 phosphatase. In addition, cyclin expression is induced by molecular signals at specific points of the cell cycle, leading to activation of Cdks. Tight control of Cdks is essential as misregulation can induce unscheduled proliferation, and genomic and chromosomal instability. Cdk4 has been shown to be mutated in some types of cancer, whilst a chromosomal rearrangement can lead to Cdk6 overexpression in lymphoma, leukemia and melanoma. Cdks are currently under investigation as potential targets for antineoplastic therapy, but as Cdks are essential for driving each cell cycle phase, therapeutic strategies that block Cdk activity are unlikely to selectively target tumor cells.