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Aliases for GGH Gene

Aliases for GGH Gene

  • Gamma-Glutamyl Hydrolase 2 3
  • Gamma-Glutamyl Hydrolase (Conjugase, Folylpolygammaglutamyl Hydrolase) 3 5
  • Gamma-Glu-X Carboxypeptidase 3 4
  • Conjugase 2 4
  • GH 3 4
  • Folylpolygammaglutamyl Hydrolase 2
  • EC 3.4.19.9 4

External Ids for GGH Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GGH Gene

  • GC08M063291
  • GC08M063867
  • GC08M063650
  • GC08M063977
  • GC08M064090
  • GC08M059415
  • GC08M063928

Summaries for GGH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GGH Gene

  • This gene catalyzes the hydrolysis of folylpoly-gamma-glutamates and antifolylpoly-gamma-glutamates by the removal of gamma-linked polyglutamates and glutamate. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GGH Gene

GGH (Gamma-Glutamyl Hydrolase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GGH include tropical sprue and methotrexate toxicity or dose selection. Among its related pathways are Pyrimidine metabolism (REACTOME) and One carbon pool by folate. GO annotations related to this gene include hydrolase activity and exopeptidase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGH Gene

  • Hydrolyzes the polyglutamate sidechains of pteroylpolyglutamates. Progressively removes gamma-glutamyl residues from pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamate to yield pteroyl-alpha-glutamate (folic acid) and free glutamate. May play an important role in the bioavailability of dietary pteroylpolyglutamates and in the metabolism of pteroylpolyglutamates and antifolates.

Gene Wiki entry for GGH Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GGH Gene

Genomics for GGH Gene

Regulatory Elements for GGH Gene

Promoters for GGH Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GGH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GGH Gene

Chromosome:
8
Start:
63,015,079 bp from pter
End:
63,039,445 bp from pter
Size:
24,367 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GGH Gene

Genes around GGH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GGH Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GGH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GGH Gene

Proteins for GGH Gene

  • Protein details for GGH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q92820-GGH_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase
    Protein Accession:
    Q92820

    Protein attributes for GGH Gene

    Size:
    318 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    35964 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GGH Gene

neXtProt entry for GGH Gene

Proteomics data for GGH Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GGH Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 212, Lys 235, Lys 253, and Lys 287
  • Glycosylation at Asn 116, Asn 163, Asn 203, and Asn 307
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GGH Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GGH Gene

Domains & Families for GGH Gene

Protein Domains for GGH Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GGH Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q92820

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GGH_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 gamma-glutamyl hydrolase domain.
  • Belongs to the peptidase C26 family.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 gamma-glutamyl hydrolase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the peptidase C26 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GGH: view

No data available for Gene Families for GGH Gene

Function for GGH Gene

Molecular function for GGH Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
gammaglutamyl hydrolase,involved in the metabolism of folic acid
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Hydrolysis of a gamma-glutamyl bond.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Hydrolyzes the polyglutamate sidechains of pteroylpolyglutamates. Progressively removes gamma-glutamyl residues from pteroylpoly-gamma-glutamate to yield pteroyl-alpha-glutamate (folic acid) and free glutamate. May play an important role in the bioavailability of dietary pteroylpolyglutamates and in the metabolism of pteroylpolyglutamates and antifolates.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GGH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GGH: view

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GGH Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GGH

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GGH Gene

Localization for GGH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGH Gene

Secreted, extracellular space. Lysosome. Melanosome. Note=While its intracellular location is primarily the lysosome, most of the enzyme activity is secreted. Identified by mass spectrometry in melanosome fractions from stage I to stage IV. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12643545}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GGH Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GGH gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
lysosome 4
vacuole 4
cytosol 3
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GGH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA --
GO:0042470 melanosome IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGH: view

Pathways & Interactions for GGH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GGH: view

Interacting Proteins for GGH Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GGH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0042493 response to drug IEA --
GO:0046900 tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate metabolic process IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GGH: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GGH Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GGH Gene

(13) Drugs for GGH Gene - From: HMDB, PharmGKB, Novoseek, and DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Methotrexate Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate Folate antagonist,inhibits DFHR, Cytotoxic agent 1444
Folic Acid Approved Nutra Enzyme, substrate 2924
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Pharma VEGF antagonist, Therapeutic Antibodies, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 1875
Pemetrexed Approved, Investigational Pharma TS, DHFR,GARFT and AICARFT inhibitor, DHFR and Thymidylate synthase inhibitor, Anti-Folates 580
Tetrahydrofolic acid Approved Nutra 0

(11) Additional Compounds for GGH Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2)
  • Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](2)
  • Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](N+1)
  • Tetrahydropteroyl-[gamma-Glu]N
  • Tetrahydropteroyl-[gamma-Glu]N+1
  • THF-L-glutamate
Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](n)
  • Tetrahydrofolyl-[Glu](N+1)
  • Tetrahydropteroyl-[gamma-Glu]N
  • Tetrahydropteroyl-[gamma-Glu]N+1
  • THF-L-Glutamic acid
  • THF-polyglutamate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GGH: view

Transcripts for GGH Gene

Unigene Clusters for GGH Gene

Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (conjugase, folylpolygammaglutamyl hydrolase):
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GGH Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GGH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GGH
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GGH

Expression for GGH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GGH Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GGH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x9.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GGH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (24.9) and Serum (10.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GGH Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GGH Gene Hs.78619

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GGH: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GGH Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GGH Gene

Orthologs for GGH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GGH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GGH 35
  • 82.29 (n)
  • 76.73 (a)
GGH 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GGH 35
  • 86.13 (n)
  • 79.37 (a)
GGH 36
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ggh 35
  • 77.74 (n)
  • 70.51 (a)
Ggh 16
Ggh 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GGH 35
  • 99.58 (n)
  • 99.69 (a)
GGH 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ggh 35
  • 76.81 (n)
  • 68.23 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GGH 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GGH 36
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GGH 35
  • 63.79 (n)
  • 57.81 (a)
GGH 36
  • 54 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GGH 36
  • 58 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ggh 35
  • 65.61 (n)
  • 62.81 (a)
Str.11987 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ggh 35
  • 60 (n)
  • 58.28 (a)
ggh 36
  • 55 (a)
OneToOne
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.5979 35
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP006670 35
  • 48.62 (n)
  • 42.41 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta l(3)72Dp 35
  • 49.53 (n)
  • 39.01 (a)
l(3)72Dp 36
  • 30 (a)
OneToMany
l(3)72Dr 36
  • 26 (a)
OneToMany
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons GGH3 35
  • 48.2 (n)
  • 40.29 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os05g0517500 35
  • 46.26 (n)
  • 35.94 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GGH:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GGH Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GGH (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GGH (if available)

Paralogs for GGH Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GGH Gene

Variants for GGH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GGH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1800909 - 63,038,753(-) CGGGC(C/T)GCCTG reference, missense
rs11545077 - 63,038,678(-) ACACC(A/G/T)CCAAG reference, missense
rs11545078 - 63,026,205(-) ATTAA(C/T)TGCCA reference, missense
rs15073 -- 63,017,519(-) ATTTT(A/T)TTTAG reference, missense
rs15074 -- 63,015,199(-) TCATT(A/C)TGTAT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GGH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv6227 CNV Loss 18451855

Variation tolerance for GGH Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 68.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 9.74; 89.37% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GGH Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GGH
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GGH

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GGH Gene

Disorders for GGH Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for GGH Gene - From: Orphanet and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
tropical sprue
  • sprue - tropical
methotrexate toxicity or dose selection
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GGH in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GGH

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GGH
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GGH
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GGH
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GGH: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GGH Gene

Publications for GGH Gene

  1. Human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase: cloning and characterization of the enzyme expressed in vitro. (PMID: 8816764) Yao R. … Galivan J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1996) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Characterization of human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in solution demonstrates that the enzyme is a non-dissociating homodimer. (PMID: 16945597) Eisele L.E. … Ryan T.J. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2006) 3 23 25 26
  3. Optimization of the trienzyme extraction for the microbiological assay of folate in vegetables. (PMID: 17439143) Chen L. … Eitenmiller R.R. (J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007) 23 25 26
  4. Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase and drug resistance. (PMID: 16859665) Schneider E. … Ryan T.J. (Clin. Chim. Acta 2006) 23 25 26
  5. Structural organization of the human gamma-glutamyl hydrolase gene. (PMID: 10570974) Yin D. … Yao R. (Gene 1999) 2 3 23

Products for GGH Gene

Sources for GGH Gene

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