Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for GALR2 Gene

Aliases for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin Receptor 2 2 3 5
  • GAL2-R 3 4
  • GALNR2 3 4
  • GALR-2 3 4
  • Galanin Receptor Type 2 3

External Ids for GALR2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALR2 Gene

  • GC17U990138
  • GC17P074534
  • GC17P074668
  • GC17P074648
  • GC17P071582
  • GC17P074070
  • GC17P069499

Summaries for GALR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin is an important neuromodulator present in the brain, gastrointestinal system, and hypothalamopituitary axis. It is a 30-amino acid non-C-terminally amidated peptide that potently stimulates growth hormone secretion, inhibits cardiac vagal slowing of heart rate, abolishes sinus arrhythmia, and inhibits postprandial gastrointestinal motility. The actions of galanin are mediated through interaction with specific membrane receptors that are members of the 7-transmembrane family of G protein-coupled receptors. GALR2 interacts with the N-terminal residues of the galanin peptide. The primary signaling mechanism for GALR2 is through the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via Gq), in contrast to GALR1, which communicates its intracellular signal by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi. However, it has been demonstrated that GALR2 couples efficiently to both the Gq and Gi proteins to simultaneously activate 2 independent signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GALR2 Gene

GALR2 (Galanin Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and galanin receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GALR3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

  • Receptor for the hormone galanin and GALP. Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that activate the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via G(q)) and that inhibit adenylyl cyclase (via G(i)).

Tocris Summary for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions.

Gene Wiki entry for GALR2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALR2 Gene

Genomics for GALR2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GALR2 Gene

Enhancers for GALR2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH17G075926 0.7 ENCODE 11.2 -145.1 -145052 1.9 ZNF263 GATAD2A CTCF ARID4B ELF4 ATF2 ZNF48 RAD21 ZNF316 POLR2A FBF1 ZACN SRP68 GALR2 ENSG00000267426 MRPL38
GH17G076049 0.6 ENCODE 12.2 -20.9 -20906 2.5 PKNOX1 ESRRA ZHX2 ZNF217 CTBP1 GATA3 MTA1 RCOR1 FOSL2 FOS SRP68 EVPL ZACN GALR2 CDK3 EXOC7 MRPL38 QRICH2 FBF1 PIR59290
GH17G075922 0.6 ENCODE 11.2 -148.6 -148648 1.2 TFAP4 NFIA SCRT2 MXD4 NR2F6 HNRNPL NR2C2 TRIM65 SRP68 ZACN GALR2 ENSG00000267426 MRPL38
GH17G076048 0.5 ENCODE 11.8 -23.3 -23256 0.4 RFX1 NRF1 TEAD4 BMI1 EVPL CDK3 ZACN SRP68 GALR2 EXOC7 FBF1 UBE2O AANAT GC17P076053
GH17G076070 1.4 FANTOM5 ENCODE 0.7 -0.1 -76 2.5 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A ZBTB7B YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF207 NUP85 UNK NT5C SRP68 ENSG00000266980 TRIM65 ENSG00000267546 EVPL RNF157 UBALD2
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around GALR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GALR2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000098499 212 2200 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A ZBTB7B YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF207

Genomic Location for GALR2 Gene

Chromosome:
17
Start:
76,072,088 bp from pter
End:
76,077,541 bp from pter
Size:
5,454 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALR2 Gene

Genes around GALR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GALR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GALR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALR2 Gene

Proteins for GALR2 Gene

  • Protein details for GALR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O43603-GALR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Galanin receptor type 2
    Protein Accession:
    O43603
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A5JUU4
    • Q32MN8

    Protein attributes for GALR2 Gene

    Size:
    387 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41700 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GALR2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GALR2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn2 and isoforms=11
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GALR2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GALR2 Gene

Domains & Families for GALR2 Gene

Gene Families for GALR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O43603

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GALR2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALR2: view

Function for GALR2 Gene

Molecular function for GALR2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
galanin receptor 2,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,binding GALN with high affinity,expressed in several region of brain as will as peripheral tissues,coupling to phospholipase C and elevation of intracellular calcium levels
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for the hormone galanin and GALP. Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that activate the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via G(q)) and that inhibit adenylyl cyclase (via G(i)).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity IDA,TAS 24517231
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23597562
GO:0017046 peptide hormone binding IDA 24517231
GO:0042923 neuropeptide binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALR2: view

Animal Models for GALR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GALR2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GALR2

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GALR2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GALR2

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GALR2

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GALR2 Gene

Localization for GALR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane TAS 9480833
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GALR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALR2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GALR2 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006936 muscle contraction TAS 9480833
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS 9480833
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 9685625
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view

Drugs & Compounds for GALR2 Gene

(65) Drugs for GALR2 Gene - From: ApexBio, DGIdb, IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
M617 Pharma Agonist Selective GAL1 agonist 0
M871 Pharma Antagonist Selective GAL2 antagonist 0
M40 Pharma Antagonist 0
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Pharma Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 0
Galanin (1-30) (human) Pharma Endogenous galanin receptor agonist 0

(4) Additional Compounds for GALR2 Gene - From: IUPHAR and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
galanin (10-29) (rat/mouse)
Agonist
galanin(2?ao29) (rat/mouse)
Full agonist, Agonist

(5) Tocris Compounds for GALR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) Non-selective galanin receptor agonist 114547-31-8
Galanin (1-30) (human) Endogenous galanin receptor agonist 119418-04-1
M 1145 Potent and selective GAL2 agonist 1172089-00-7
M617 Selective GAL1 agonist 860790-38-1
M871 Selective GAL2 antagonist 908844-75-7

(11) ApexBio Compounds for GALR2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AR-M 1896 Selective GAL2 agonist 367518-31-8
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat) 112747-70-3
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse) 114547-31-8
Galanin (1-30) (human) 119418-04-1
Galanin (2-29) (rat) 141696-11-9
Galanin (porcine) 88813-36-9
Galnon 475115-35-6
M 1145 1172089-00-7
M40 143896-17-7
M617 860790-38-1
M871 908844-75-7
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALR2: view

Transcripts for GALR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GALR2 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(7) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GALR2 Gene

Galanin receptor 2:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GALR2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GALR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GALR2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GALR2

Expression for GALR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GALR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x20.1), Colon - Sigmoid (x13.6), and Colon - Transverse (x6.4).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GALR2 Gene:

GALR2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALR2 Gene:

Hs.666366

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GALR2 Gene:

O43603-GALR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed abundantly within the central nervous system in both hypothalamus and hippocampus. In peripheral tissues, the strongest expression was observed in heart, kidney, liver, and small intestine.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GALR2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GALR2: view

Primer Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GALR2 Gene

Orthologs for GALR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GALR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALR2 34 35
  • 99.31 (n)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALR2 34 35
  • 89.03 (n)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALR2 34 35
  • 89.01 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100910349 34
  • 86.65 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GALR2 35
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galr2 34 16 35
  • 85.21 (n)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALR2 34 35
  • 72.75 (n)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GALR2 35
  • 62 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia galr2 34
  • 67.59 (n)
Str.12152 34
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:ch211-250n8.2 34
  • 67.79 (n)
GALR2 35
  • 60 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta GPRALS2 34
  • 54.67 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AlstR 36 34 35
  • 47.64 (n)
AR-2 35
  • 27 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea npr-9 34 35
  • 43.84 (n)
ZK455.3 36
  • 33 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 35
  • 33 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for GALR2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GALR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GALR2 (if available)

Paralogs for GALR2 Gene

Paralogs for GALR2 Gene

(15) SIMAP similar genes for GALR2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALR2: view

Variants for GALR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000061016 -- 76,075,776(+) TCCTT(C/T)GCAAG intron-variant
rs1000206025 -- 76,069,564(+) TAGCC(A/G)GGCAT intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000512849 -- 76,074,359(+) CTCCC(A/T)GGGGT intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000929308 -- 76,072,066(+) ACCTG(C/T)CTGAT intron-variant, utr-variant-5-prime
rs1001156691 -- 76,077,516(+) TAAAA(A/C/G)GCACA upstream-variant-2KB, utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv2142 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv509674 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv833546 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for GALR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 79% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.12; 61.26% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GALR2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
GALR2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

Disorders for GALR2 Gene

Relevant External Links for GALR2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GALR2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GALR2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GALR2

No disorders were found for GALR2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GALR2 Gene

Publications for GALR2 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor. (PMID: 9685625) Fathi Z. … Zimanyi I.A. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1998) 2 3 4 22 64
  2. Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. (PMID: 9832121) Kolakowski L.F. Jr. … O'Dowd B.F. (J. Neurochem. 1998) 2 3 4 22 64
  3. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 17083333) Belfer I. … Enoch M.A. (Genes Brain Behav. 2007) 3 22 46 64
  4. Cloning and expression of the human galanin receptor GalR2. (PMID: 9480833) Bloomquist B.T. … Cornfield L.J. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1998) 3 4 22 64
  5. Cloning and characterization of the human galanin GALR2 receptor. (PMID: 9880084) Borowsky B. … Gerald C. (Peptides 1998) 3 4 22 64

Products for GALR2 Gene

Sources for GALR2 Gene

Content
Loading form....