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Aliases for GALR2 Gene

Aliases for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin Receptor 2 2 3 5
  • GAL2-R 3 4
  • GALNR2 3 4
  • GALR-2 3 4

External Ids for GALR2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GALR2 Gene

  • GC17U990138
  • GC17P074534
  • GC17P074668
  • GC17P074648
  • GC17P071582
  • GC17P074070
  • GC17P069499

Summaries for GALR2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin is an important neuromodulator present in the brain, gastrointestinal system, and hypothalamopituitary axis. It is a 30-amino acid non-C-terminally amidated peptide that potently stimulates growth hormone secretion, inhibits cardiac vagal slowing of heart rate, abolishes sinus arrhythmia, and inhibits postprandial gastrointestinal motility. The actions of galanin are mediated through interaction with specific membrane receptors that are members of the 7-transmembrane family of G protein-coupled receptors. GALR2 interacts with the N-terminal residues of the galanin peptide. The primary signaling mechanism for GALR2 is through the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via Gq), in contrast to GALR1, which communicates its intracellular signal by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi. However, it has been demonstrated that GALR2 couples efficiently to both the Gq and Gi proteins to simultaneously activate 2 independent signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GALR2 Gene

GALR2 (Galanin Receptor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and galanin receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is SSTR2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

  • Receptor for the hormone galanin and GALP. Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that activate the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via G(q)) and that inhibit adenylyl cyclase (via G(i)).

Tocris Summary for GALR2 Gene

  • Galanin is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the endocrine system. Three different galanin receptors (GAL1-3) have been identified. Disruption of galanin expression or galanin receptor signaling is seen in many multifactoral conditions.

Gene Wiki entry for GALR2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GALR2 Gene

Genomics for GALR2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GALR2 Gene

Promoters for GALR2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GALR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GALR2 Gene

Chromosome:
17
Start:
76,072,088 bp from pter
End:
76,077,541 bp from pter
Size:
5,454 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GALR2 Gene

Genes around GALR2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GALR2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GALR2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GALR2 Gene

Proteins for GALR2 Gene

  • Protein details for GALR2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O43603-GALR2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Galanin receptor type 2
    Protein Accession:
    O43603
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A5JUU4
    • Q32MN8

    Protein attributes for GALR2 Gene

    Size:
    387 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    41700 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for GALR2 Gene

Proteomics data for GALR2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GALR2 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 2 and Asn 11
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GALR2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for GALR2 (Galanin R2/GALR2)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GALR2 Gene

Domains & Families for GALR2 Gene

Gene Families for GALR2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GALR2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O43603

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GALR2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GALR2: view

Function for GALR2 Gene

Molecular function for GALR2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
galanin receptor 2,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,binding GALN with high affinity,expressed in several region of brain as will as peripheral tissues,coupling to phospholipase C and elevation of intracellular calcium levels
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for the hormone galanin and GALP. Receptor for the hormone spexin-1 (PubMed:24517231). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that activate the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via G(q)) and that inhibit adenylyl cyclase (via G(i)).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004966 galanin receptor activity IEA,IDA 24517231
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GALR2: view

Animal Models for GALR2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GALR2:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GALR2

miRNA for GALR2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GALR2

Inhibitory RNA Products

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GALR2 Gene

Localization for GALR2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GALR2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GALR2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 4
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GALR2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GALR2: view

Pathways by source for GALR2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for GALR2 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GALR2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS 9685625
GO:0007200 phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA --
GO:0007218 neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA,TAS --
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission TAS 9832121
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GALR2: view

Drugs & Compounds for GALR2 Gene

(58) Drugs for GALR2 Gene - From: IUPHAR, DGIdb, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
[<sup>125</sup>I][Tyr<sup>26</sup>]galanin (human) Pharma Agonist 0
[<sup>125</sup>I][Tyr<sup>26</sup>]galanin (pig) Pharma Agonist 0
[N-Me,des-Sar]Gal-B2 Pharma Agonist 0
C7 Pharma Antagonist 0
dithiipin-1,1,4,4-tetroxide analogue 7 Pharma Antagonist 0

(8) Additional Compounds for GALR2 Gene - From: IUPHAR, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
galanin (10-29) (rat/mouse)
Agonist
galanin(2?ao29) (rat/mouse)
Full agonist, Agonist
Galanin (1-15) (porcine, rat)
112747-70-3
Galanin (1-29) (rat, mouse)
114547-31-8
Galanin (1-30) (human)
119418-04-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GALR2: view

Transcripts for GALR2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GALR2 Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(7) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GALR2 Gene

Galanin receptor 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GALR2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GALR2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GALR2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GALR2

Expression for GALR2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GALR2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GALR2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x20.1), Colon - Sigmoid (x13.6), and Colon - Transverse (x6.4).

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GALR2 Gene Hs.666366

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GALR2 Gene

O43603-GALR2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed abundantly within the central nervous system in both hypothalamus and hippocampus. In peripheral tissues, the strongest expression was observed in heart, kidney, liver, and small intestine.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GALR2: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for GALR2 Gene

Orthologs for GALR2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GALR2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GALR2 35
  • 89.03 (n)
  • 89.54 (a)
GALR2 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GALR2 35
  • 89.01 (n)
  • 88.27 (a)
GALR2 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Galr2 35
  • 85.21 (n)
  • 87.92 (a)
Galr2 16
Galr2 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GALR2 35
  • 99.31 (n)
  • 98.97 (a)
GALR2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia LOC100910349 35
  • 86.65 (n)
  • 88.52 (a)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GALR2 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GALR2 35
  • 72.75 (n)
  • 68.58 (a)
GALR2 36
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GALR2 36
  • 62 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia galr2 35
  • 67.59 (n)
  • 68.23 (a)
Str.12152 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:ch211-250n8.2 35
  • 67.79 (n)
  • 67.08 (a)
GALR2 36
  • 60 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta AlstR 37
  • 36 (a)
AlstR 35
  • 47.64 (n)
  • 36.17 (a)
AlstR 36
  • 29 (a)
ManyToMany
AR-2 36
  • 27 (a)
ManyToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta GPRALS2 35
  • 54.67 (n)
  • 40.73 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea ZK455.3 37
  • 33 (a)
npr-9 35
  • 43.84 (n)
  • 38.98 (a)
npr-9 36
  • 24 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 33 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for GALR2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GALR2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GALR2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GALR2 (if available)

Paralogs for GALR2 Gene

(15) SIMAP similar genes for GALR2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GALR2: view

Variants for GALR2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GALR2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs8192512 -- 76,076,599(+) GTGCC(C/G)GCTCA intron-variant
rs8192513 -- 76,076,877(+) TTCTC(C/G)GCCTG reference, missense
rs9916013 -- 76,075,718(+) CAAGC(C/T)ACGGT intron-variant
rs34160081 -- 76,076,511(+) TGTGT(-/G)GCGGT intron-variant
rs61741641 -- 76,076,722(+) GGGGC(C/T)GTCGC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GALR2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv908824 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv833546 CNV Loss 17160897
dgv3270n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv509674 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv2142 CNV Insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for GALR2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 79% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.12; 61.26% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GALR2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GALR2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GALR2 Gene

Disorders for GALR2 Gene

Relevant External Links for GALR2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GALR2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GALR2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GALR2

No disorders were found for GALR2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GALR2 Gene

Publications for GALR2 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3. (PMID: 9832121) Kolakowski L.F. Jr. … O'Dowd B.F. (J. Neurochem. 1998) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor. (PMID: 9685625) Fathi Z. … Zimanyi I.A. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1998) 2 3 23
  3. Galanin decreases proliferation of PC12 cells and induces apoptosis via its subtype 2 receptor (GalR2). (PMID: 18272487) Tofighi R. … Ceccatelli S. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008) 3 23
  4. Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes. (PMID: 17083333) Belfer I. … Enoch M.A. (Genes Brain Behav. 2007) 3 23
  5. Galanin receptor subtype GalR2 mediates apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. (PMID: 14592962) Berger A. … Kofler B. (Endocrinology 2004) 3 23

Products for GALR2 Gene

Sources for GALR2 Gene

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