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Aliases for ACTN2 Gene

Aliases for ACTN2 Gene

  • Actinin, Alpha 2 2 3
  • F-Actin Cross-Linking Protein 3 4
  • CMD1AA 3 6
  • Alpha-Actinin Skeletal Muscle Isoform 2 4
  • Alpha-Actinin Skeletal Muscle 3
  • Alpha-Actinin-2 3

External Ids for ACTN2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ACTN2 Gene

  • GC01P234982
  • GC01P232303
  • GC01P233146
  • GC01P233890
  • GC01P233175
  • GC01P234916
  • GC01P236849
  • GC01P207337

Summaries for ACTN2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ACTN2 Gene

  • Alpha actinins belong to the spectrin gene superfamily which represents a diverse group of cytoskeletal proteins, including the alpha and beta spectrins and dystrophins. Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal isoform is found along microfilament bundles and adherens-type junctions, where it is involved in binding actin to the membrane. In contrast, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle isoforms are localized to the Z-disc and analogous dense bodies, where they help anchor the myofibrillar actin filaments. This gene encodes a muscle-specific, alpha actinin isoform that is expressed in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

GeneCards Summary for ACTN2 Gene

ACTN2 (Actinin, Alpha 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ACTN2 include cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1aa and actn2-related dilated cardiomyopathy. Among its related pathways are Regulation of actin cytoskeleton and ERK Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and protein dimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is SPTBN5.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACTN2 Gene

  • F-actin cross-linking protein which is thought to anchor actin to a variety of intracellular structures. This is a bundling protein

Gene Wiki entry for ACTN2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ACTN2 Gene

Genomics for ACTN2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for ACTN2 Gene

Genomic Location for ACTN2 Gene

236,686,454 bp from pter
236,764,631 bp from pter
78,178 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ACTN2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for ACTN2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ACTN2 Gene

Proteins for ACTN2 Gene

  • Protein details for ACTN2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1ANE4
    • B2RCS5
    • Q86TF4
    • Q86TI8

    Protein attributes for ACTN2 Gene

    894 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    103854 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; antiparallel. Also forms heterodimers with ACTN3. Interacts with ADAM12, MYOZ1, MYOZ2 and MYOZ3. Interacts via its C-terminal region with the LDB3 PDZ domain. Interacts with XIRP2. Interacts with DST isoform 1 (via N-terminus). Interacts with PARVB.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ACTN2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ACTN2 Gene


neXtProt entry for ACTN2 Gene

Proteomics data for ACTN2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for ACTN2 Gene

  • Ubiquitinated by FBXL22, leading to proteasomal degradation.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys42 and Lys338
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for ACTN2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ACTN2 Gene

Domains for ACTN2 Gene

Gene Families for ACTN2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 actin-binding domain.
  • Belongs to the alpha-actinin family.
  • Contains 4 spectrin repeats.
  • Contains 1 actin-binding domain.
  • Contains 2 CH (calponin-homology) domains.
  • Contains 2 EF-hand domains.
  • Belongs to the alpha-actinin family.
  • Contains 4 spectrin repeats.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ACTN2: view

Function for ACTN2 Gene

Molecular function for ACTN2 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
actinin,alpha 2,actin filament cross-linking,calcium insensitive,expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle,interacting with actin and the carboxyterminal region of dystrophin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
F-actin cross-linking protein which is thought to anchor actin to a variety of intracellular structures. This is a bundling protein

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ACTN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005178 integrin binding TAS 8104223
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 10427098
GO:0008092 cytoskeletal protein binding IDA 10427098
GO:0008307 structural constituent of muscle TAS 1339456
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACTN2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ACTN2: view

miRNA for ACTN2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ACTN2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ACTN2 Gene

Localization for ACTN2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACTN2 Gene

Cytoplasm, myofibril, sarcomere, Z line. Note=Colocalizes with MYOZ1 and FLNC at the Z-lines of skeletal muscle.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for ACTN2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ACTN2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 4
cytosol 4
extracellular 4
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ACTN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton NAS 12809483
GO:0005884 actin filament TAS 1339456
GO:0005925 focal adhesion IMP 16807302
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACTN2: view

Pathways for ACTN2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ACTN2: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ACTN2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0006936 muscle contraction --
GO:0007155 cell adhesion TAS 10656685
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission TAS --
GO:0007596 blood coagulation TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ACTN2: view

Drugs for ACTN2 Gene

(3) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for ACTN2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
nmda 52.1 7
glutamate 25.8 1
calcium 5.38 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ACTN2: view

Transcripts for ACTN2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for ACTN2 Gene

Actinin, alpha 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for ACTN2

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ACTN2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19a · 19b ^ 20a · 20b ·
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP6: - - -

ExUns: 20c ^ 21 ^ 22 ^ 23a · 23b ^ 24a · 24b · 24c
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for ACTN2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ACTN2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for ACTN2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ACTN2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Muscle - Skeletal (24.1), Heart - Left Ventricle (15.4), and Heart - Atrial Appendage (7.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for ACTN2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (41.1), Fetal heart (15.0), and Esophagus (8.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for ACTN2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ACTN2 Gene Hs.498178

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ACTN2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in both skeletal and cardiac muscle
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with ACTN2: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Expression partners for ACTN2 Gene

Orthologs for ACTN2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for ACTN2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ACTN2 35
  • 92.54 (n)
  • 98.66 (a)
ACTN2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ACTN2 35
  • 92.51 (n)
  • 99.33 (a)
ACTN2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Actn2 35
  • 91.09 (n)
  • 99.22 (a)
Actn2 16
Actn2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ACTN2 35
  • 99.53 (n)
  • 99.88 (a)
ACTN2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Actn2 35
  • 90.42 (n)
  • 99.22 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ACTN2 36
  • 94 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ACTN2 36
  • 95 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ACTN2 35
  • 82.81 (n)
  • 95.19 (a)
ACTN2 36
  • 95 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ACTN2 36
  • 92 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia actn2 35
  • 76.55 (n)
  • 87.47 (a)
Str.15742 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii actn2 35
  • 76.14 (n)
  • 85.01 (a)
actn2 36
  • 85 (a)
ACTN2 (2 of 2) 36
  • 75 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Actn 37
  • 66 (a)
Actn 36
  • 67 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea atn-1 36
  • 60 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.10901 36
  • 65 (a)
Species with no ortholog for ACTN2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ACTN2 Gene

Gene Tree for ACTN2 (if available)
Gene Tree for ACTN2 (if available)

Paralogs for ACTN2 Gene

(17) SIMAP similar genes for ACTN2 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ACTN2: view

Variants for ACTN2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ACTN2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs11577284 -- 236,736,998(+) CTAAG(A/C)TAGAC intron-variant
rs11589177 -- 236,738,582(+) CCTTA(G/T)ACTCT intron-variant
rs11800168 -- 236,741,986(+) ccgca(C/G/T)gcaca intron-variant
rs11800182 -- 236,757,241(+) CTGGT(A/T)ATAGA intron-variant
rs12046163 -- 236,686,956(+) TAGGA(A/G)AGAGG intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ACTN2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv4988 CNV Insertion 18451855
dgv191e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv510599 CNV Complex 20534489
nsv8924 CNV Gain+Loss 18304495
nsv509690 CNV Insertion 20534489
esv2725496 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv820994 CNV Deletion 20802225
nsv499679 CNV Gain 21111241
esv995766 CNV Loss 20482838
esv28532 CNV Gain+Loss 19812545
esv2725507 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2725518 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2725529 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2725540 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2725551 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2741411 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2725562 CNV Deletion 23290073
essv18459 CNV CNV 17122850
nsv509702 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv428335 CNV Gain 18775914
nsv4999 CNV Loss 18451855
esv2649810 CNV Deletion 19546169
nsv511744 CNV Loss 21212237
esv2641685 CNV Deletion 19546169
esv2005187 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv25038 CNV Gain 19812545
nsv820436 CNV Deletion 20802225
esv1082367 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv2725573 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1676660 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv1209958 CNV Deletion 17803354
esv275031 CNV Loss 21479260

Relevant External Links for ACTN2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ACTN2 Gene

Disorders for ACTN2 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for ACTN2 Gene (102573)


  • Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic (CMH) [MIM:192600]: A hereditary heart disorder characterized by ventricular hypertrophy, which is usually asymmetric and often involves the interventricular septum. The symptoms include dyspnea, syncope, collapse, palpitations, and chest pain. They can be readily provoked by exercise. The disorder has inter- and intrafamilial variability ranging from benign to malignant forms with high risk of cardiac failure and sudden cardiac death. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20022194}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Cardiomyopathy, dilated 1AA (CMD1AA) [MIM:612158]: A disorder characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired systolic function, resulting in congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Patients are at risk of premature death. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14567970}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for ACTN2 Gene

(2) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for ACTN2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
neuromuscular diseases 32.3 1
muscular dystrophies 32 1

Relevant External Links for ACTN2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ACTN2: view

No data available for Genatlas for ACTN2 Gene

Publications for ACTN2 Gene

  1. Cloning and characterization of two human skeletal muscle alpha- actinin genes located on chromosomes 1 and 11. (PMID: 1339456) Beggs A.H. … Kunkel L.M. (J. Biol. Chem. 1992) 2 3 4 23
  2. ZASP: a new Z-band alternatively spliced PDZ-motif protein. (PMID: 10427098) Faulkner G. … Lanfranchi G. (J. Cell Biol. 1999) 3 4 23
  3. Fine mapping and genomic structure of ACTN2, the human gene coding for the sarcomeric isoform of alpha-actinin-2, expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle. (PMID: 10548523) Tiso N. … Danieli G.A. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1999) 3 4 23
  4. alpha-actinin-3 and performance. (PMID: 19696509) Yang N. … North K. (Med Sport Sci 2009) 3 23 48
  5. Mutations in alpha-actinin-2 cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a genome-wide analysis. (PMID: 20022194) Chiu C. … Semsarian C. (J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2010) 3 4 23

Products for ACTN2 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for ACTN2

Sources for ACTN2 Gene

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