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Aliases for HRK Gene

Aliases for HRK Gene

  • Harakiri, BCL2 Interacting Protein 2 3
  • BH3-Interacting Domain-Containing Protein 3 3 4
  • Neuronal Death Protein DP5 3 4
  • Death Protein 5 2 3
  • Harakiri, BCL2-Interacting Protein (Contains Only BH3 Domain) 2
  • Harakiri, BCL2 Interacting Protein (Contains Only BH3 Domain) 3
  • Activator Of Apoptosis Hrk 3
  • BCL2-Interacting Protein 3
  • BID3 4
  • DP5 3

External Ids for HRK Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HRK Gene

  • GC12M116138
  • GC12M117081
  • GC12M115710
  • GC12M115761
  • GC12M117299
  • GC12M114308
  • GC12M117303

Summaries for HRK Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HRK Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the BCL-2 protein family. Members of this family are involved in activating or inhibiting apoptosis. The encoded protein localizes to intracellular membranes. This protein promotes apoptosis by interacting with the apoptotic inhibitors BCL-2 and BCL-X(L) via its BH3 domain. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

GeneCards Summary for HRK Gene

HRK (Harakiri, BCL2 Interacting Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HRK include corneal abscess and chronic gonococcal salpingitis. Among its related pathways are ATF-2 transcription factor network and NGF Pathway.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HRK Gene

  • Promotes apoptosis.

Gene Wiki entry for HRK Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HRK Gene

Genomics for HRK Gene

Regulatory Elements for HRK Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for HRK Gene

116,856,144 bp from pter
116,881,441 bp from pter
25,298 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HRK Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
GeneLoc Logo Gene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HRK Gene

Proteins for HRK Gene

  • Protein details for HRK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Activator of apoptosis harakiri
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for HRK Gene

    91 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    9884 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with BCL2 and BCL2L1. Interacts with C1QBP.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HRK Gene

neXtProt entry for HRK Gene

Proteomics data for HRK Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HRK Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for HRK Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HRK Gene

Domains & Families for HRK Gene

Protein Domains for HRK Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HRK Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • The BH3 motif is required for the induction of cell death
  • The BH3 motif is required for the induction of cell death
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HRK: view

No data available for Gene Families for HRK Gene

Function for HRK Gene

Molecular function for HRK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Promotes apoptosis.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HRK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 14596824
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HRK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HRK: view

Animal Models for HRK Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HRK:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for HRK Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target HRK

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for HRK

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HRK Gene

Localization for HRK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HRK Gene

Membrane; Single-pass membrane protein. Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for HRK Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HRK gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HRK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 15031724
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HRK: view

Pathways & Interactions for HRK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HRK: view

Pathways by source for HRK Gene

1 Qiagen pathway for HRK Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for HRK Gene

PCR Array Products

SIGNOR curated interactions for HRK Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HRK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006915 apoptotic process IEA --
GO:0032464 positive regulation of protein homooligomerization IDA 21041309
GO:0042981 regulation of apoptotic process --
GO:0043065 positive regulation of apoptotic process IMP 15031724
GO:0090200 positive regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria IDA 21041309
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HRK: view

Drugs & Compounds for HRK Gene

(1) Drugs for HRK Gene - From: NovoSeek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Calcium Nutra 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HRK: view

Transcripts for HRK Gene

mRNA/cDNA for HRK Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(18) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(4) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for HRK Gene

Harakiri, BCL2 interacting protein (contains only BH3 domain):
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for HRK

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HRK Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5
SP2: - - -

Relevant External Links for HRK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HRK Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HRK Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HRK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Hippocampus (x9.5), Brain - Anterior cingulate cortex (BA24) (x7.6), Brain - Cortex (x5.8), Brain - Frontal Cortex (BA9) (x5.5), and Pituitary (x4.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HRK Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Plasma (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for HRK Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HRK Gene Hs.87247

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HRK: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for HRK Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HRK Gene

Orthologs for HRK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for HRK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HRK 35
  • 96.34 (n)
  • 98.9 (a)
HRK 36
  • 99 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HRK 35
  • 100 (n)
  • 100 (a)
HRK 36
  • 100 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hrk 16
Hrk 36
  • 73 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HRK 36
  • 98 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HRK 36
  • 78 (a)
Species with no ortholog for HRK:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for HRK Gene

Gene Tree for HRK (if available)
Gene Tree for HRK (if available)

Paralogs for HRK Gene

No data available for Paralogs for HRK Gene

Variants for HRK Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HRK Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs730512 -- 116,869,497(+) CCAGC(A/G)CAGAT intron-variant
rs884378 -- 116,870,393(-) GATGA(C/T)GCCTA intron-variant
rs1112700 -- 116,868,400(-) TGAGG(C/T)GAGCT intron-variant
rs1495931 -- 116,880,563(-) GTCCC(C/G)TTCCA intron-variant
rs1495932 -- 116,874,184(-) TCCCA(A/G)CCACA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HRK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv898 CNV Insertion 18451855
nsv832524 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv826522 CNV Gain 20364138

Variation tolerance for HRK Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 0.29; 6.44% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HRK Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HRK Gene

Disorders for HRK Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for HRK Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
corneal abscess
chronic gonococcal salpingitis
  • gonococcal salpingitis
acute salpingitis
chronic salpingitis
- elite association
Search HRK in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for HRK

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HRK: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HRK Gene

Publications for HRK Gene

  1. Signaling by IL-1beta+IFN-gamma and ER stress converge on DP5/Hrk activation: a novel mechanism for pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis. (PMID: 19629134) Gurzov E.N. … Eizirik D.L. (Cell Death Differ. 2009) 23 67
  2. The role of HRK gene in human cancer. (PMID: 19641496) Nakamura M. … Konishi N. (Oncogene 2008) 23 67
  3. dp5/HRK is a c-Jun target gene and required for apoptosis induced by potassium deprivation in cerebellar granule neurons. (PMID: 17428807) Ma C. … Li M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2007) 23 67
  4. Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons diminishes murine ovarian reserve via induction of Harakiri. (PMID: 18037991) Jurisicova A. … Casper R.F. (J. Clin. Invest. 2007) 23 67
  5. Structure of the C-terminal domain of the pro-apoptotic protein Hrk and its interaction with model membranes. (PMID: 17434443) Bernabeu A. … VillalaA-n J. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2007) 23 67

Products for HRK Gene

Sources for HRK Gene

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