Aliases for CA12 Gene
External Ids for CA12 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CA12 Gene
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. This gene product is a type I membrane protein that is highly expressed in normal tissues, such as kidney, colon and pancreas, and has been found to be overexpressed in 10% of clear cell renal carcinomas. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
GeneCards Summary for CA12 Gene
CA12 (Carbonic Anhydrase XII) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CA12 include hyperchlorhidrosis, isolated and hypoxia. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Glucose / Energy Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include carbonate dehydratase activity. An important paralog of this gene is CA14.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CA12 Gene
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide
Carbonic anhydrases are zinc-containing enzymes belonging to the lyases family, and are primarily responsible for catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen (H+) ions. There are several different carbonic anhydrase isoforms; these can be broadly grouped into cytosolic (CA I, CA II, CA III, CA VII, CA XIII), mitochondrial (CA VA, CA VB), secreted (CA VI) and membrane-associated (CA IV, CA IX, CA XII, CA XIV) carbonic anhydrases. The functions of the remaining carbonic anhydrases are yet to be elucidated. Expression of the membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase, CA IX, has been reported in hypoxic tumors where its activity is linked to promoting survival of tumor cells and aiding cancer progression. This is thought to occur through the carbonic anhyrase-mediated production of bicarbonate ions, which neutralizes the abnormally acidic pH of the extracellular environment induced during hypoxia. Furthermore, as CA IX is a hypoxia- and HIF-1-inducible enzyme, its expression can be used as a biomarker for hypoxic tumors.