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Aliases for TYRP1 Gene

Aliases for TYRP1 Gene

  • Tyrosinase-Related Protein 1 2 3 4
  • Melanoma Antigen Gp75 3 4
  • Glycoprotein 75 3 4
  • DHICA Oxidase 3 4
  • Catalase B 3 4
  • TRP1 3 4
  • CAS2 3 4
  • TYRP 3 4
  • TRP 3 4
  • EC 63
  • EC 1.14.18.- 4
  • EC 1.14.18 63
  • TRP-1 4
  • TYRRP 4
  • CATB 3
  • GP75 3
  • OCA3 3

External Ids for TYRP1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TYRP1 Gene

  • TYRP
  • CAS2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TYRP1 Gene

  • GC09P012859
  • GC09P012674

Summaries for TYRP1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TYRP1 Gene

  • This gene encodes a melanosomal enzyme that belongs to the tyrosinase family and plays an important role in the melanin biosynthetic pathway. Defects in this gene are the cause of rufous oculocutaneous albinism and oculocutaneous albinism type III. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

GeneCards Summary for TYRP1 Gene

TYRP1 (Tyrosinase-Related Protein 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TYRP1 include albinism, oculocutaneous, type iii and prolactin producing pituitary tumor. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Direct p53 effectors. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and oxidoreductase activity. An important paralog of this gene is DCT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYRP1 Gene

  • Oxidation of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) into indole-5,6-quinone-2-carboxylic acid. May regulate or influence the type of melanin synthesized

Gene Wiki entry for TYRP1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TYRP1 Gene

Genomics for TYRP1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for TYRP1 Gene

Genomic Location for TYRP1 Gene

12,685,439 bp from pter
12,710,290 bp from pter
24,852 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TYRP1 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TYRP1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TYRP1 Gene

Proteins for TYRP1 Gene

  • Protein details for TYRP1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid oxidase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P78468
    • P78469
    • Q13721
    • Q15679

    Protein attributes for TYRP1 Gene

    537 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    60724 Da
    Name=Cu(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29036; Note=Binds 2 copper ions per subunit.;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for TYRP1 Gene

Proteomics data for TYRP1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TYRP1 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn 96, Asn 104, Asn 181, Asn 304, Asn 350, and Asn 385
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TYRP1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for TYRP1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TYRP1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the tyrosinase family.
  • Belongs to the tyrosinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TYRP1: view

No data available for Gene Families for TYRP1 Gene

Function for TYRP1 Gene

Molecular function for TYRP1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
tyrosinase-related protein 1,involved in melanogenesis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Oxidation of 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) into indole-5,6-quinone-2-carboxylic acid. May regulate or influence the type of melanin synthesized

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TYRP1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TYRP1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005507 copper ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11441007
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity --
GO:0016716 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, another compound as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen IEA --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYRP1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TYRP1: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TYRP1

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TYRP1 Gene

Localization for TYRP1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYRP1 Gene

Melanosome membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Note=Located to mature stage III and IV melanosomes and apposed endosomal tubular membranes. Transported to pigmented melanosomes by the BLOC-1 complex (By similarity). {ECO:0000250}.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TYRP1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TYRP1 gene
Compartment Confidence
endosome 5
chloroplast 3
lysosome 2
vacuole 2
cytosol 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
golgi apparatus 1
nucleus 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TYRP1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0010008 endosome membrane IDA 19841138
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0030669 clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane IDA 19841138
GO:0033162 melanosome membrane ISS --
GO:0042470 melanosome ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYRP1: view

Pathways & Interactions for TYRP1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TYRP1: view

Pathways by source for TYRP1 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for TYRP1 Gene
3 KEGG pathways for TYRP1 Gene

PCR Array Products

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P17643-TYRP1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Pigment biosynthesis; melanin biosynthesis

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TYRP1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006582 melanin metabolic process --
GO:0008152 metabolic process --
GO:0030318 melanocyte differentiation IEA --
GO:0032438 melanosome organization IEA --
GO:0042438 melanin biosynthetic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYRP1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TYRP1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TYRP1 Gene

(18) Drugs for TYRP1 Gene - From: NovoSeek and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ethanol Approved Pharma 1708
Levodopa Approved Pharma Agonist 339
cyclic amp Experimental Pharma 0
Forskolin Experimental Pharma 0
Kojic acid Experimental Pharma 0

(21) Additional Compounds for TYRP1 Gene - From: NovoSeek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
5,6-Dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid
  • 5,6-Dhica
  • 5,6-Dihydroxy-1H-indole-2-carboxylate
  • 5,6-Dihydroxy-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
  • 5,6-Dihydroxy-2-indolecarboxylate
  • 5,6-Dihydroxy-2-indolecarboxylic acid
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TYRP1: view

Transcripts for TYRP1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for TYRP1 Gene

Tyrosinase-related protein 1:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TYRP1

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TYRP1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b
SP1: -
SP2: - -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for TYRP1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TYRP1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TYRP1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TYRP1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic) (x15.3), Skin - Sun Exposed (Lower leg) (x13.8), Heart - Left Ventricle (x10.1), and Heart - Atrial Appendage (x4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TYRP1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TYRP1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TYRP1 Gene Hs.270279

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TYRP1 Gene

Tissue specificity: Pigment cells
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TYRP1: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TYRP1 Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for TYRP1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TYRP1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TYRP1 35
  • 88.33 (n)
  • 88.64 (a)
TYRP1 36
  • 89 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TYRP1 35
  • 89.45 (n)
  • 89.39 (a)
TYRP1 36
  • 89 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tyrp1 35
  • 85.54 (n)
  • 85.29 (a)
Tyrp1 16
Tyrp1 36
  • 85 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TYRP1 35
  • 99.57 (n)
  • 99.44 (a)
TYRP1 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tyrp1 35
  • 85.04 (n)
  • 85.1 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TYRP1 36
  • 83 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TYRP1 36
  • 79 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TYRP1 35
  • 73.98 (n)
  • 76.55 (a)
TYRP1 36
  • 76 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TYRP1 36
  • 75 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.13722 35
tyrp1 35
  • 68.18 (n)
  • 69.64 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia tyrp1-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tyrp1b 35
  • 65.18 (n)
  • 68.6 (a)
tyrp1a 36
  • 60 (a)
tyrp1b 36
  • 68 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TYRP1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for TYRP1 Gene

Gene Tree for TYRP1 (if available)
Gene Tree for TYRP1 (if available)

Paralogs for TYRP1 Gene

Paralogs for TYRP1 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for TYRP1 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TYRP1: view

Variants for TYRP1 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYRP1 Gene

Genetic variants in TYRP1 define the skin/hair/eye pigmentation variation locus 11 (SHEP11) [MIM:612271] and are responsible for variability in hair color linked to chromosome 9p23 in Melanesians. Hair, eye and skin pigmentation are among the most visible examples of human phenotypic variation, with a broad normal range that is subject to substantial geographic stratification

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TYRP1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1800374 -- 12,695,756(+) TTTGG(A/T)GAAGT synonymous-codon, reference
rs2075508 -- 12,698,363(+) GCTAA(C/T)AGAAA intron-variant
rs2274094 -- 12,693,529(+) ACTCC(A/G)TTAGT intron-variant
rs2733836 -- 12,692,252(+) TGATT(G/T)TTGTA upstream-variant-2KB
rs2733837 -- 12,692,542(+) tagga(G/T)aactt upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TYRP1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv557 CNV CNV 17122850
esv2422212 CNV Duplication 17116639
nsv831513 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv892572 CNV Gain 21882294
essv18757 CNV CNV 17122850

Variation tolerance for TYRP1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 62.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.88; 48.47% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TYRP1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for TYRP1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(11) MalaCards diseases for TYRP1 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
albinism, oculocutaneous, type iii
  • oculocutaneous albinism type 3
prolactin producing pituitary tumor
  • malignant prolactinoma
amelanotic melanoma
  • melanoma amelanotic
oculocutaneous albinism
  • albinism, oculocutaneous
vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease susceptibility 1
  • vitiligo
- elite association
Search TYRP1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Albinism, oculocutaneous, 3 (OCA3) [MIM:203290]: An autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is reduced in skin, hair, and eyes. Tyrosinase activity is normal and patients have only moderate reduction of pigment. The eyes present red reflex on transillumination of the iris, dilution of color of iris, nystagmus and strabismus. Darker-skinned individuals have bright copper-red coloration of the skin and hair. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16704458, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23504663}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for TYRP1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TYRP1: view

No data available for Genatlas for TYRP1 Gene

Publications for TYRP1 Gene

  1. Cathepsins B, L and cystatin C in cyst fluid of ovarian tumors. (PMID: 19915865) Kolwijck E. … Sweep F.C. (J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 2010) 23 67
  2. Inulavosin, a melanogenesis inhibitor, leads to mistargeting of tyrosinase to lysosomes and accelerates its degradation. (PMID: 19110539) Fujita H. … Tanaka Y. (J. Invest. Dermatol. 2009) 23 67
  3. Specific cathepsin B inhibitor is cell-permeable and activates presentation of TTC in primary human dendritic cells. (PMID: 19428564) Reich M. … Burster T. (Immunol. Lett. 2009) 23 67
  4. Physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation. (PMID: 19449448) Yamaguchi Y. … Hearing V.J. (Biofactors 2009) 23 67
  5. AP-1 and AP-3 mediate sorting of melanosomal and lysosomal membrane proteins into distinct post-Golgi trafficking pathways. (PMID: 18410487) Chapuy B. … HAPning S. (Traffic 2008) 23 67

Products for TYRP1 Gene

Sources for TYRP1 Gene

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