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Aliases for TYMS Gene

Aliases for TYMS Gene

  • Thymidylate Synthetase 2 3 5
  • EC 4 63
  • TSase 3 4
  • TS 3 4
  • HST422 3
  • TMS 3

External Ids for TYMS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TYMS Gene

  • TS

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TYMS Gene

  • GC18U990034
  • GC18P000645
  • GC18P000647

Summaries for TYMS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TYMS Gene

  • Thymidylate synthase catalyzes the methylation of deoxyuridylate to deoxythymidylate using 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (methylene-THF) as a cofactor. This function maintains the dTMP (thymidine-5-prime monophosphate) pool critical for DNA replication and repair. The enzyme has been of interest as a target for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. It is considered to be the primary site of action for 5-fluorouracil, 5-fluoro-2-prime-deoxyuridine, and some folate analogs. Expression of this gene and that of a naturally occuring antisense transcript rTSalpha (GeneID:55556) vary inversely when cell-growth progresses from late-log to plateau phase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TYMS Gene

TYMS (Thymidylate Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TYMS include Timothy Syndrome and Brugada Syndrome 3. Among its related pathways are Purine metabolism and RB in Cancer. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and mRNA binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

  • Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.

Tocris Summary for TYMS Gene

Gene Wiki entry for TYMS Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for TYMS Gene

No data available for fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TYMS Gene

Genomics for TYMS Gene

Regulatory Elements for TYMS Gene

Enhancers for TYMS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around TYMS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for TYMS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around TYMS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for TYMS Gene

657,604 bp from pter
673,578 bp from pter
15,975 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TYMS Gene

Genes around TYMS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TYMS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TYMS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TYMS Gene

Proteins for TYMS Gene

  • Protein details for TYMS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thymidylate synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q8WYK3
    • Q8WYK4

    Protein attributes for TYMS Gene

    313 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    35716 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TYMS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TYMS Gene


neXtProt entry for TYMS Gene

Proteomics data for TYMS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TYMS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 77, Lys 107, Lys 169, Lys 292, and Lys 308
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TYMS Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for TYMS Gene

Protein Domains for TYMS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TYMS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the thymidylate synthase family.
  • Belongs to the thymidylate synthase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TYMS: view

No data available for Gene Families for TYMS Gene

Function for TYMS Gene

Molecular function for TYMS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thymidylate synthetase,pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + dUMP = dihydrofolate + dTMP.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TYMS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TYMS: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TYMS Gene

Localization for TYMS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion. Mitochondrion matrix. Mitochondrion inner membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TYMS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TYMS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytoskeleton 1
extracellular 1
plasma membrane 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TYMS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TYMS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TYMS: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P04818-TYSY_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Pyrimidine metabolism; dTTP biosynthesis.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TYMS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000082 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006139 nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process TAS 2987839
GO:0006235 dTTP biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0007568 aging IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYMS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TYMS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TYMS Gene

(91) Drugs for TYMS Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Raltitrexed Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Target 28
Capecitabine Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker, Target RNA processing inhibitor and thymidylate synthase inhibitor, F-pyrimidines 1239
Fluorouracil Approved Pharma inhibitor, Target, Enzyme, other/unknown, substrate RNA processing inhibitor and thymidylate synthase inhibitor 1697
Pemetrexed Approved, Investigational Pharma inhibitor, Biomarker, Target TS, DHFR,GARFT and AICARFT inhibitor, DHFR and Thymidylate synthase inhibitor, Anti-Folates 587
leucovorin Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 1029

(70) Additional Compounds for TYMS Gene - From: Novoseek, HMDB, and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (6R)-5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate
  • 5,10-Methenyltetrahydropteroylglutamate
  • 5,10-Methylene-6-Hydrofolate
  • 5,10-Methylene-6-Hydrofolic acid
  • 5,10-Methylene-THF
N1,N12-Diethylspermine tetrahydrochloride
Ozagrel hydrochloride
Triacsin C

(5) Tocris Compounds for TYMS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
5-Fluorouracil Inhibits RNA and DNA synthesis 51-21-8
N1,N12-Diethylspermine tetrahydrochloride Polyamine synthase inhibitor 113812-15-0
Ozagrel hydrochloride Selective thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor 74003-18-2
Risedronate Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase inhibitor 115436-72-1
Triacsin C Inhibitor of acyl-CoA synthetase 76896-80-5

(5) ApexBio Compounds for TYMS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Doxifluridine 3094-09-5
Leucovorin Calcium Derivative of folic acid 6035-45-6
Raltitrexed 112887-68-0
Risedronate Sodium FPP synthase inhibitor 115436-72-1
Triflurdine (Viroptic) Anti-herpesvirus antiviral drug 70-00-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TYMS: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for TYMS Gene

Unigene Clusters for TYMS Gene

Thymidylate synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TYMS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TYMS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TYMS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TYMS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TYMS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (28.6), Fetal Liver (9.7), Lymph node (9.1), and Platelet (8.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TYMS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TYMS Gene Hs.369762

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TYMS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Protein tissue co-expression partners for TYMS Gene

Orthologs for TYMS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TYMS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TYMS 35
  • 88.39 (n)
  • 90.1 (a)
  • 79 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TYMS 35
  • 89.56 (n)
  • 91.05 (a)
TS 36
  • 79 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tyms 35
  • 87.19 (n)
  • 90.55 (a)
Tyms 16
Tyms 36
  • 91 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TYMS 35
  • 99.25 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tyms 35
  • 86.1 (n)
  • 89.9 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 76 (a)
-- 36
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TYMS 36
  • 82 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TYMS 35
  • 79.43 (n)
  • 84.16 (a)
  • 81 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TYMS 36
  • 83 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.1772 35
tyms 35
  • 74.17 (n)
  • 82.78 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.17306 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tyms 35
  • 74.41 (n)
  • 82.75 (a)
tyms 36
  • 75 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.9644 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ts 37
  • 63 (a)
Ts 35
  • 64.4 (n)
  • 64.72 (a)
Ts 36
  • 61 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010457 35
  • 62.44 (n)
  • 66.55 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y110A7A.4 37
  • 68 (a)
Y110A7A.4 35
  • 62.91 (n)
  • 68.31 (a)
Y110A7A.4 36
  • 62 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR219C 35
  • 60.68 (n)
  • 63.38 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A07843g 35
  • 59.62 (n)
  • 64.44 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CDC21 35
  • 60.8 (n)
  • 64.79 (a)
CDC21 36
  • 62 (a)
CDC21 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons THY-2 35
  • 61.54 (n)
  • 65.73 (a)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.483 35
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.9056 35
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.7395 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.8307 35
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.29395 35
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.482 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10053 35
  • 61.27 (n)
  • 63.11 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPAC15E1.04 35
  • 57.89 (n)
  • 59.87 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11299 36
  • 69 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TYMS:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for TYMS Gene

Gene Tree for TYMS (if available)
Gene Tree for TYMS (if available)

Paralogs for TYMS Gene Pseudogenes for TYMS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TYMS: view

No data available for Paralogs for TYMS Gene

Variants for TYMS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TYMS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 18 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs15872 -- 668,258(+) TTTTT(C/T)GGAAC intron-variant
rs172296 -- 667,257(-) ccatc(A/T)ccatc intron-variant
rs188267 -- 667,227(-) ccatc(A/T)ccatc intron-variant
rs207949 -- 667,185(-) ccatc(A/T)ccatc intron-variant
rs207950 -- 667,251(-) ccatc(A/T)ccatc intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TYMS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv909287 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv909288 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv909289 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv833577 CNV Gain+Loss 17160897
nsv528169 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2716652 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2521731 CNV Deletion 19546169
esv2023053 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv1982616 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv4728 CNV Deletion 18987735
esv2716653 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2716654 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv9315 CNV Loss 19470904
esv2716655 CNV Deletion 23290073

Variation tolerance for TYMS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 31.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.23; 5.19% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for TYMS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

Disorders for TYMS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(28) MalaCards diseases for TYMS Gene - From: OMIM, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
timothy syndrome
  • long qt syndrome with syndactyly
brugada syndrome 3
  • brgda3
rectal neoplasm
  • neoplasm of rectum
malignant pleural mesothelioma
  • malignant mesothelioma of pleura
colon adenocarcinoma
  • adenocarcinoma of colon
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TYMS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for TYMS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TYMS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TYMS Gene

Publications for TYMS Gene

  1. Immunohistochemical characterization of pyrimidine synthetic enzymes, thymidine kinase-1 and thymidylate synthase, in various types of cancer. (PMID: 20372850) Shintani M. … Kamoshida S. (Oncol. Rep. 2010) 3 23 25 26
  2. Thymidylate synthase expression pattern, expression level and single nucleotide polymorphism are predictors for disease-free survival in patients of colorectal cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil. (PMID: 16596248) FernA!ndez-Contreras M.E. … Gamallo C. (Int. J. Oncol. 2006) 3 23 25 26
  3. Intracellular thymidylate synthase inhibition by trifluorothymidine in FM3A cells. (PMID: 15571283) Temmink O.H. … Peters G.J. (Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2004) 3 23 25 26
  4. Association of thymidylate synthase gene polymorphism with its mRNA and protein expression and with prognosis in gastric cancer. (PMID: 12530000) Ishida Y. … Watanabe G. (Anticancer Res. 2002) 3 23 48 67
  5. Molecular mechanism underlying the synergistic interaction between trifluorothymidine and the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib in human colorectal cancer cell lines. (PMID: 19886911) Bijnsdorp I.V. … Peters G.J. (Cancer Sci. 2010) 23 25 26

Products for TYMS Gene

Sources for TYMS Gene