Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for TYMS Gene

Aliases for TYMS Gene

  • Thymidylate Synthetase 2 3
  • TS 3 4 6
  • EC 4 63
  • TSase 3 4
  • TMS 3 6
  • Thymidylate Synthase 3
  • HST422 3

External Ids for TYMS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TYMS Gene

  • TS

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TYMS Gene

  • GC18U990034
  • GC18P000645
  • GC18P000647

Summaries for TYMS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TYMS Gene

  • Thymidylate synthase catalyzes the methylation of deoxyuridylate to deoxythymidylate using 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (methylene-THF) as a cofactor. This function maintains the dTMP (thymidine-5-prime monophosphate) pool critical for DNA replication and repair. The enzyme has been of interest as a target for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. It is considered to be the primary site of action for 5-fluorouracil, 5-fluoro-2-prime-deoxyuridine, and some folate analogs. Expression of this gene and that of a naturally occuring antisense transcript rTSalpha (GeneID:55556) vary inversely when cell-growth progresses from late-log to plateau phase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TYMS Gene

TYMS (Thymidylate Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TYMS include dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Among its related pathways are Cell Cycle, Mitotic and Cell Cycle, Mitotic. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and mRNA binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

  • Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.

Tocris Summary for TYMS Gene

Gene Wiki entry for TYMS Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for TYMS Gene

No data available for fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TYMS Gene

Genomics for TYMS Gene

Regulatory Elements for TYMS Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for TYMS Gene

657,604 bp from pter
673,578 bp from pter
15,975 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TYMS Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TYMS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TYMS Gene

Proteins for TYMS Gene

  • Protein details for TYMS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thymidylate synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q8WYK3
    • Q8WYK4

    Protein attributes for TYMS Gene

    313 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    35716 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TYMS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TYMS Gene


neXtProt entry for TYMS Gene

Proteomics data for TYMS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TYMS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys77, Lys104, Lys107, Lys169, Lys292, and Lys308
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TYMS Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for TYMS (TYMS)

Domains for TYMS Gene

Protein Domains for TYMS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TYMS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P04818
  • Belongs to the thymidylate synthase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TYMS: view

No data available for Gene Families for TYMS Gene

Function for TYMS Gene

Molecular function for TYMS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thymidylate synthetase,pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + dUMP = dihydrofolate + dTMP
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TYMS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TYMS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003729 mRNA binding IEA --
GO:0004799 thymidylate synthase activity TAS --
GO:0005542 folic acid binding IEA --
GO:0008144 drug binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYMS: view

Phenotypes for TYMS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TYMS: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TYMS

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for TYMS Gene

Localization for TYMS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion. Mitochondrion matrix. Mitochondrion inner membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for TYMS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TYMS gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 4
extracellular 2
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TYMS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21876188
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005730 nucleolus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 21876188
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 21876188
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYMS: view

Pathways for TYMS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TYMS: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P04818-TYSY_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Pyrimidine metabolism; dTTP biosynthesis

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TYMS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000082 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0000083 regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006139 nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process TAS 2987839
GO:0006206 pyrimidine nucleobase metabolic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYMS: view

Compounds for TYMS Gene

Compound Products

(5) Tocris Compounds for TYMS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AT 56 L-PGDS inhibitor [162640-98-4]
Borrelidin Antiangiogenic; inhibits threonyl-tRNA synthetase [7184-60-3]
Floxuridine Inhibitor of thymidylate synthetase; anticancer agent [50-91-9]
TFC 007 Potent hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) inhibitor [927878-49-7]
Triacsin C Inhibitor of acyl-CoA synthetase [76896-80-5]

(5) ApexBio Compounds for TYMS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Doxifluridine [3094-9-5]
Leucovorin Calcium Derivative of folic acid [6035-45-6]
Raltitrexed [112887-68-0]
Risedronate Sodium FPP synthase inhibitor [115436-72-1]
Triflurdine (Viroptic) Anti-herpesvirus antiviral drug [70-00-8]

(5) HMDB Compounds for TYMS Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • 5,10-methylene-THF
5-Thymidylic acid
  • 2'-Deoxythymidine 5'-monophosphate
Dihydrofolic acid
  • 7,8-Dihydro-L-folic acid
  • 2'-Deoxy-5'-uridylate
Thymidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate
  • 3',5'-Cyclic TMP

(123) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TYMS Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
thymidylate 99.5 405
tomudex 96.2 148
5fluorouracil 94.4 416
5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine-5-monophosphate 94.2 69
ag 337 93.7 54

(9) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for TYMS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TYMS: view

Transcripts for TYMS Gene

Unigene Clusters for TYMS Gene

Thymidylate synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for TYMS

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TYMS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TYMS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TYMS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TYMS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for TYMS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (28.6), Fetal Liver (9.7), Lymph node (9.1), and Platelet (8.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TYMS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TYMS Gene Hs.369762

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TYMS: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Expression partners for TYMS Gene

Orthologs for TYMS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TYMS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TYMS 35
  • 88.39 (n)
  • 90.1 (a)
  • 79 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TYMS 35
  • 89.56 (n)
  • 91.05 (a)
TS 36
  • 79 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tyms 35
  • 87.19 (n)
  • 90.55 (a)
Tyms 16
Tyms 36
  • 91 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TYMS 35
  • 99.25 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tyms 35
  • 86.1 (n)
  • 89.9 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 76 (a)
-- 36
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TYMS 36
  • 82 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TYMS 35
  • 79.43 (n)
  • 84.16 (a)
  • 81 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TYMS 36
  • 83 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.1772 35
tyms 35
  • 74.17 (n)
  • 82.78 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.17306 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tyms 35
  • 74.41 (n)
  • 82.75 (a)
tyms 36
  • 75 (a)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.9644 35
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ts 37
  • 63 (a)
Ts 35
  • 64.4 (n)
  • 64.72 (a)
Ts 36
  • 61 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010457 35
  • 62.44 (n)
  • 66.55 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y110A7A.4 37
  • 68 (a)
Y110A7A.4 35
  • 62.91 (n)
  • 68.31 (a)
Y110A7A.4 36
  • 62 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR219C 35
  • 60.68 (n)
  • 63.38 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A07843g 35
  • 59.62 (n)
  • 64.44 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CDC21 35
  • 60.8 (n)
  • 64.79 (a)
CDC21 36
  • 62 (a)
CDC21 38
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons THY-2 35
  • 61.54 (n)
  • 65.73 (a)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.483 35
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.9056 35
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.7395 35
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.8307 35
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.29395 35
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.482 35
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10053 35
  • 61.27 (n)
  • 63.11 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPAC15E1.04 35
  • 57.89 (n)
  • 59.87 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11299 36
  • 69 (a)
Species with no ortholog for TYMS:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for TYMS Gene

Gene Tree for TYMS (if available)
Gene Tree for TYMS (if available)

Paralogs for TYMS Gene Pseudogenes for TYMS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TYMS: view

No data available for Paralogs for TYMS Gene

Variants for TYMS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TYMS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 18 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs15872 -- 668,258(+) TTTTT(C/T)GGAAC intron-variant
rs172296 -- 667,257(-) ccatc(A/T)ccatc intron-variant
rs188267 -- 667,227(-) ccatc(A/T)ccatc intron-variant
rs207949 -- 667,185(-) ccatc(A/T)ccatc intron-variant
rs207950 -- 667,251(-) ccatc(A/T)ccatc intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TYMS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv909287 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv909288 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv909289 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv833577 CNV Gain+Loss 17160897
nsv528169 CNV Loss 19592680
esv2716652 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2521731 CNV Deletion 19546169
esv2023053 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv1982616 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv4728 CNV Deletion 18987735
esv2716653 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2716654 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv9315 CNV Loss 19470904
esv2716655 CNV Deletion 23290073

Relevant External Links for TYMS Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

Disorders for TYMS Gene

(95) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TYMS Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
colorectal cancer 84.5 245
colon cancer 75.8 119
gastric cancer 70.1 147
tumors 69 322
colon carcinoma 69 38

Relevant External Links for TYMS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TYMS: view

No data available for OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TYMS Gene

Publications for TYMS Gene

  1. Polymorphism in the thymidylate synthase promoter enhancer region in colorectal cancer. (PMID: 11445856) Marsh S. … McLeod H.L. (Int. J. Oncol. 2001) 3 23 48
  2. Human thymidylate synthase is in the closed conformation when complexed with dUMP and raltitrexed, an antifolate drug. (PMID: 11329255) Phan J. … Lebioda L. (Biochemistry 2001) 3 4 23
  3. Structure of human thymidylate synthase suggests advantages of chemotherapy with noncompetitive inhibitors. (PMID: 11278511) Phan J. … Lebioda L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4 23
  4. Thymidylate synthase gene polymorphism predicts response to capecitabine in advanced colorectal cancer. (PMID: 12018454) Park D.J. … Lenz H.J. (Int J Colorectal Dis 2002) 3 23 48
  5. Association of thymidylate synthase gene polymorphism with its mRNA and protein expression and with prognosis in gastric cancer. (PMID: 12530000) Ishida Y. … Watanabe G. (Anticancer Res. 2002) 3 23 48

Products for TYMS Gene

Sources for TYMS Gene

Back to Top