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Aliases for TXN Gene

Aliases for TXN Gene

  • Thioredoxin 2 3
  • Surface-Associated Sulphydryl Protein 3 4
  • ATL-Derived Factor 3 4
  • SASP 3 4
  • TRX1 3 4
  • TRDX 3 4
  • ADF 3 4
  • TRX 3 4
  • Thioredoxin Delta 3 3
  • TXN Delta 3 3

External Ids for TXN Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TXN Gene

  • GC09M103804
  • GC09M104738
  • GC09M106463
  • GC09M108386
  • GC09M110085
  • GC09M112045
  • GC09M113006
  • GC09M082608

Summaries for TXN Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TXN Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene acts as a homodimer and is involved in many redox reactions. The encoded protein is active in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteines in certain proteins, which is part of the response to intracellular nitric oxide. This protein is found in the cytoplasm. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GeneCards Summary for TXN Gene

TXN (Thioredoxin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TXN include breast mucinous carcinoma and acute myocarditis. Among its related pathways are Signaling events mediated by PTP1B and Metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TXNDC8.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN Gene

  • Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Plays a role in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in target proteins, and thereby contributes to the response to intracellular nitric oxide. Nitrosylates the active site Cys of CASP3 in response to nitric oxide (NO), and thereby inhibits caspase-3 activity. Induces the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in ionizing radiation (IR) cells through its oxidation/reduction status and stimulates AP-1 transcriptional activity

  • ADF augments the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor TAC (IL2R/P55)

Gene Wiki entry for TXN Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TXN Gene

Genomics for TXN Gene

Regulatory Elements for TXN Gene

Genomic Location for TXN Gene

Start:
110,243,811 bp from pter
End:
110,256,640 bp from pter
Size:
12,830 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for TXN Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for TXN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TXN Gene

Proteins for TXN Gene

  • Protein details for TXN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P10599-THIO_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Thioredoxin
    Protein Accession:
    P10599
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1ALW1
    • O60744
    • Q53X69
    • Q96KI3
    • Q9UDG5

    Protein attributes for TXN Gene

    Size:
    105 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11737 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts with TXNIP through the redox-active site. Interacts with MAP3K5 and CASP3. In case of infection, interacts with S.typhimurium protein slrP. Interacts with APEX1; the interaction stimulates the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in a redox-dependent manner.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TXN Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TXN Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for TXN Gene

Proteomics data for TXN Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for TXN Gene

  • In case of infection, ubiquitinated by S.typhimurium protein slrP, leading to its degradation.
  • In the fully reduced protein, both Cys-69 and Cys-73 are nitrosylated in response to nitric oxide (NO). When two disulfide bonds are present in the protein, only Cys-73 is nitrosylated. Cys-73 can serve as donor for nitrosylation of target proteins.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys39
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TXN Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TXN Gene

Domains for TXN Gene

Protein Domains for TXN Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TXN Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P10599

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

THIO_HUMAN :
  • P10599
Domain:
  • Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the thioredoxin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TXN: view

No data available for Gene Families for TXN Gene

Function for TXN Gene

Molecular function for TXN Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: thioredoxin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Plays a role in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in target proteins, and thereby contributes to the response to intracellular nitric oxide. Nitrosylates the active site Cys of CASP3 in response to nitric oxide (NO), and thereby inhibits caspase-3 activity. Induces the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in ionizing radiation (IR) cells through its oxidation/reduction status and stimulates AP-1 transcriptional activity
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: ADF augments the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor TAC (IL2R/P55)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Up-regulated by ionizing radiation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TXN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11118054
GO:0015035 protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IBA --
GO:0015037 peptide disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0016671 oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, disulfide as acceptor IBA --
GO:0044822 poly(A) RNA binding IDA 22658674
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN: view

Phenotypes for TXN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TXN: view

Animal Models for TXN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TXN:

miRNA for TXN Gene

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for TXN Gene

Localization for TXN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Secreted. Note=Secreted by a leaderless secretory pathway. Predominantly in the cytoplasm in non irradiated cells. Radiation induces translocation of TRX from the cytoplasm to the nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for TXN Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TXN gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 4
chloroplast 3
endoplasmic reticulum 3
mitochondrion 3
plasma membrane 3
cytoskeleton 2
lysosome 1
peroxisome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TXN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005681 spliceosomal complex --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN: view

Pathways for TXN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TXN: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TXN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000103 sulfate assimilation IBA --
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA --
GO:0000302 response to reactive oxygen species TAS --
GO:0006351 transcription, DNA-templated --
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXN: view

Compounds for TXN Gene

(119) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for TXN Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
dithiol 90.3 53
selenocysteine 83 20
cysteine 77.3 99
ebselen selenol 77.3 3
selenodiglutathione 76.3 6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TXN: view

Transcripts for TXN Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TXN Gene

Unigene Clusters for TXN Gene

Thioredoxin:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXN Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TXN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TXN
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
TXN

Expression for TXN Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for TXN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TXN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (5.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for TXN Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TXN Gene Hs.435136

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with TXN: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TXN Gene

Orthologs for TXN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TXN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TXN 35
  • 99.68 (n)
  • 100 (a)
TXN 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TXN 35
  • 93.02 (n)
  • 93.33 (a)
TXN 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC474798 35
  • 93.75 (n)
  • 95.83 (a)
TXN 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txn1 35
  • 85.76 (n)
  • 89.32 (a)
Txn1 16
Txn1 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 81 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Txn1 35
  • 85.9 (n)
  • 89.42 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXN 35
  • 74.29 (n)
  • 70.48 (a)
TXN 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 69 (a)
OneToMany
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100170420 35
  • 64.1 (n)
  • 61.54 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii -- 35
txn 35
  • 65.03 (n)
  • 65.69 (a)
txn 36
  • 62 (a)
ManyToMany
zgc:56493 36
  • 58 (a)
ManyToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta TRX1 35
  • 54.37 (n)
  • 48.54 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG13473 36
  • 30 (a)
ManyToMany
dhd 36
  • 36 (a)
ManyToMany
Trx-2 35
  • 56.77 (n)
  • 52.48 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea trx-4 36
  • 35 (a)
ManyToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TRX1 36
  • 46 (a)
ManyToMany
TRX2 36
  • 48 (a)
ManyToMany
TRX2 38
TRX3 35
  • 51.82 (n)
  • 46.53 (a)
TRX3 36
  • 38 (a)
ManyToMany
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F10351g 35
  • 54.13 (n)
  • 43.56 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TRX2 35
  • 60 (n)
  • 47.06 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os07g0190800 35
  • 52.1 (n)
  • 47.57 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06556 35
  • 49 (n)
  • 46 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes trx1 35
  • 54.21 (n)
  • 50.51 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11205 36
  • 44 (a)
ManyToMany
Species with no ortholog for TXN:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TXN Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TXN (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TXN (if available)

Paralogs for TXN Gene

Paralogs for TXN Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for TXN Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TXN: view

Variants for TXN Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TXN Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs2776 -- 110,244,008(-) GTCTC(A/G/T)TGTCT utr-variant-3-prime
rs5843 -- 110,244,140(+) GTTAT(A/G)TTTTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs12047 -- 110,251,386(-) TGGGC(A/C)TTGCA missense, reference
rs727495 -- 110,253,100(-) TTTAC(A/G)AGACC intron-variant
rs749384 -- 110,258,398(+) AAGTG(A/G)GCGTA upstream-variant-2KB

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TXN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2752274 CNV Gain 17911159
nsv893713 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv508562 CNV Loss 20534489
nsv521448 CNV Loss 19592680
esv1173288 CNV Insertion 17803354
nsv6662 CNV Loss 18451855

Relevant External Links for TXN Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
TXN

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN Gene

Disorders for TXN Gene

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for TXN Gene

(90) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for TXN Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
cancer 39 111
leukemia t-cell 35.4 9
tumors 24 108
fanconis anemia 19.7 7
malignant mesothelioma 17.3 1

Relevant External Links for TXN

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
TXN
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
TXN
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TXN: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXN Gene

Publications for TXN Gene

  1. Human thioredoxin reactivity-structure/function relationship. (PMID: 2176490) Jacquot J.-P. … Wollman E. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1990) 3 4 23
  2. AP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by a direct association between thioredoxin and Ref-1. (PMID: 9108029) Hirota K. … Yodoi J. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1997) 3 4 23
  3. Crystal structures of reduced, oxidized, and mutated human thioredoxins: evidence for a regulatory homodimer. (PMID: 8805557) Weichsel A. … Montfort W.R. (Structure 1996) 3 4 23
  4. Common germline genetic variation in antioxidant defense genes and survival after diagnosis of breast cancer. (PMID: 17634480) Udler M. … Pharoah P. (J. Clin. Oncol. 2007) 3 23 48
  5. Thioredoxin and TRAF family proteins regulate reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of ASK1 through reciprocal modulation of the N-terminal homophilic interaction of ASK1. (PMID: 17724081) Fujino G. … Ichijo H. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2007) 3 23

Products for TXN Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for TXN

Sources for TXN Gene

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