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Aliases for P2RY12 Gene

Aliases for P2RY12 Gene

  • Purinergic Receptor P2Y, G-Protein Coupled, 12 2 3
  • P2Y12 3 4 6
  • P2Y12 Platelet ADP Receptor 3 4
  • ADP-Glucose Receptor 3 4
  • P2Y(ADP) 3 4
  • P2Y(Cyc) 3 4
  • P2T(AC) 3 4
  • P2Y(AC) 3 4
  • BDPLT8 3 6
  • ADPG-R 3 4
  • SP1999 3 4
  • HORK3 3 4
  • Putative G-Protein Coupled Receptor 3
  • G-Protein Coupled Receptor SP1999 3
  • Gi-Coupled ADP Receptor HORK3 3
  • Purinergic Receptor P2RY12 3
  • P2Y Purinoceptor 12 3
  • P2Y(12)R 3

External Ids for P2RY12 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for P2RY12 Gene

  • GC03M147996
  • GC03M151887
  • GC03M152336
  • GC03M152376
  • GC03M152538
  • GC03M151055
  • GC03M148428

Summaries for P2RY12 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for P2RY12 Gene

  • The product of this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor is involved in platelet aggregation, and is a potential target for the treatment of thromboembolisms and other clotting disorders. Mutations in this gene are implicated in bleeding disorder, platelet type 8 (BDPLT8). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GeneCards Summary for P2RY12 Gene

P2RY12 (Purinergic Receptor P2Y, G-Protein Coupled, 12) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with P2RY12 include bleeding disorder, platelet-type, 8 and resistance to clopidogrel. Among its related pathways are GPCR Pathway and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity and ADP receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is P2RY14.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for P2RY12 Gene

  • Receptor for ADP and ATP coupled to G-proteins that inhibit the adenylyl cyclase second messenger system. Not activated by UDP and UTP. Required for normal platelet aggregation and blood coagulation.

Tocris Summary for P2RY12 Gene

  • P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that respond to extracellular purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. To date eight mammalian P2Y receptors are known (P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y12, P2Y13 and P2Y14) as well as the non-mammalian chick p2y3, Xenopus p2y8 and turkey p2y receptors. p2y9 and p2y10 receptors are considered to be orphan receptors, and p2y5 is now known to actually be a leukotriene B4 receptor. P2Y receptor signaling is mediated through coupling to G proteins, mainly Gq/11, with P2Y12, P2Y13 and P2Y14 signaling through Gi/o. Activation of P2Y receptors initiates a wide range of signaling cascades including PLCbeta, PLD, PLA2, AC and MAPK/MEK kinase. P2Y receptors are found in most human tissues. They have diverse physiological roles including regulation of platelet aggregation, muscle contraction, neurotransmission, and epithelial cell communication and migration.

Gene Wiki entry for P2RY12 Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for P2RY12 Gene

No data available for fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for P2RY12 Gene

Genomics for P2RY12 Gene

Regulatory Elements for P2RY12 Gene

Genomic Location for P2RY12 Gene

151,336,843 bp from pter
151,384,812 bp from pter
47,970 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for P2RY12 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for P2RY12 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for P2RY12 Gene

Proteins for P2RY12 Gene

  • Protein details for P2RY12 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    P2Y purinoceptor 12
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DNJ5
    • Q546J7

    Protein attributes for P2RY12 Gene

    342 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39439 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for P2RY12 Gene

neXtProt entry for P2RY12 Gene

Proteomics data for P2RY12 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for P2RY12 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn6 and Asn13
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for P2RY12 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for P2RY12

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for P2RY12 Gene

Domains for P2RY12 Gene

Gene Families for P2RY12 Gene

  • P2RY :GPCR / Class A : Purinergic receptors, P2Y
  • P2R :Purinergic receptors

Protein Domains for P2RY12 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for P2RY12 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q9H244
  • The transmembrane domain is composed of seven transmembrane helices; most of these are not strictly perpendicular to the plane of the membrane, but are tilted and/or kinked. Agonist binding promotes a conformation change in the extracellular loops that leads to an inward movement of the transmembrane helices. Antagonists such as AZD1283 can bind to an overlapping site, but block the inward movement of the transmembrane helices (PubMed:24670650, PubMed:24784220).
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with P2RY12: view

Function for P2RY12 Gene

Molecular function for P2RY12 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for ADP and ATP coupled to G-proteins that inhibit the adenylyl cyclase second messenger system. Not activated by UDP and UTP. Required for normal platelet aggregation and blood coagulation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for P2RY12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001609 G-protein coupled adenosine receptor activity IEA --
GO:0001621 ADP receptor activity IMP 12578987
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0005085 guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with P2RY12: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with P2RY12: view

Animal Models for P2RY12 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for P2RY12:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for P2RY12

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for P2RY12 Gene

Localization for P2RY12 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for P2RY12 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for P2RY12 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for P2RY12 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for P2RY12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA --
GO:0005901 caveola IEA --
GO:0009897 external side of plasma membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with P2RY12: view

Pathways for P2RY12 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with P2RY12: view

Pathways by source for P2RY12 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for P2RY12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001973 adenosine receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA 11104774
GO:0007188 adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
GO:0007193 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IMP 12578987
GO:0007596 blood coagulation TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with P2RY12: view

Compounds for P2RY12 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for P2RY12 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
2-Methylthioadenosine diphosphate trisodium salt Potent agonist for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2Y13 [475193-31-8]
alpha,beta-Methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate trisodium salt P2 agonist [1343364-54-4]
MRS 2179 tetrasodium salt Selective P2Y1 antagonist [1454889-37-2]
MRS 2365 Highly potent and selective P2Y1 agonist [436847-09-5]
MRS 2500 tetraammonium salt Extremely potent and selective P2Y1 antagonist [630103-23-0]

(3) ApexBio Compounds for P2RY12 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Clopidogrel P2Y12 receptor antagonist [120202-66-6]
Prasugrel ADP receptor inhibitor [150322-43-3]
Ticagrelor P2Y12 receptor antagonist [274693-27-5]

(2) HMDB Compounds for P2RY12 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • (+)-(S)-Clopidogrel

(6) Drugbank Compounds for P2RY12 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
113665-84-2 target antagonist
  • PGI2
35121-78-9 target agonist
  • CS-747
150322-43-3 target antagonist
274693-27-5 target inhibitor
  • 4-C-32
55142-85-3 target antagonist

(24) IUPHAR Ligand for P2RY12 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
PSB-0739 Antagonist Antagonist 9.8
[3H]2MeSADP Agonist Full agonist 9.6
AR-C67085 Agonist Full agonist 8.52
[3H]PSB-0413 Antagonist Antagonist 8.5
cangrelor Antagonist Antagonist 8.3
compound 20o [PMID:22984835] Antagonist Antagonist 8.1
ARL66096 Antagonist Antagonist 7.95
INS50589 Antagonist Antagonist 7.95
AZD6140 Antagonist Antagonist 7.9
2MeSADP Agonist Full agonist 7
BX 667 Antagonist Antagonist 7
compound 4 [PMID:22984835] Antagonist Antagonist 6.9
compound 4 [PMID:23083103] Antagonist Antagonist 6.9
active metabolite of clopidogrel Antagonist Antagonist 6.9
BX 048 Antagonist Antagonist 6.5
INS49266 Antagonist Antagonist 6.28
pCMPS Antagonist Antagonist 5.9
ADP Gating inhibitor Antagonist 5.7
R-138727 Antagonist Antagonist 5.7
2MeSAMP Antagonist Antagonist 5.6
ATPgammaS Agonist Full agonist 5.5
ADPbetaS Agonist Full agonist 4.5
2MeSATP Agonist Full agonist 4.3
ATP Activator None

(35) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for P2RY12 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
cangrelor 96.5 25
clopidogrel 94.4 75
prasugrel 93.9 15
2-mesadp 91.8 9
adp 91.1 141

(4) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for P2RY12 Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
cangrelor CA
clopidogrel CA
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with P2RY12: view

Transcripts for P2RY12 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for P2RY12 Gene

Unigene Clusters for P2RY12 Gene

Purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 12:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for P2RY12

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for P2RY12 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for P2RY12 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for P2RY12 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for P2RY12 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for P2RY12 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Spinal cord (cervical c-1) (8.0), Brain - Substantia nigra (7.7), Brain - Amygdala (5.4), Brain - Hippocampus (4.4), and Brain - Hypothalamus (4.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for P2RY12 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Frontal cortex (26.2), Pancreatic juice (24.2), and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (6.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for P2RY12 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for P2RY12 Gene Hs.591281

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for P2RY12 Gene

Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in the platelets, lower levels in the brain. Lowest levels in the lung, appendix, pituitary and adrenal gland. Expressed in the spinal cord and in the fetal brain.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with P2RY12: view

Expression partners for P2RY12 Gene

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for P2RY12 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for P2RY12 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia P2RY12 35
  • 88.5 (n)
  • 90.27 (a)
P2RY12 36
  • 90 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia P2RY12 35
  • 90.76 (n)
  • 94.4 (a)
P2RY12 36
  • 94 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia P2ry12 35
  • 83.13 (n)
  • 88.99 (a)
P2ry12 16
P2ry12 36
  • 86 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia P2RY12 35
  • 99.42 (n)
  • 99.71 (a)
P2RY12 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia P2ry12 35
  • 82.83 (n)
  • 88.25 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia P2RY12 36
  • 84 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia P2RY12 36
  • 83 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves P2RY12 36
  • 70 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia P2RY12 36
  • 72 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia p2ry12 35
  • 65.37 (n)
  • 64.56 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100149618 35
  • 59.02 (n)
  • 58.69 (a)
p2ry12 36
  • 52 (a)
Species with no ortholog for P2RY12:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for P2RY12 Gene

Gene Tree for P2RY12 (if available)
Gene Tree for P2RY12 (if available)

Paralogs for P2RY12 Gene

Paralogs for P2RY12 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for P2RY12 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with P2RY12: view

Variants for P2RY12 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for P2RY12 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
VAR_025383 Bleeding disorder, platelet-type 8 (BDPLT8)
VAR_025384 Bleeding disorder, platelet-type 8 (BDPLT8)
VAR_049431 -

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for P2RY12 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv829757 CNV Loss 17160897
esv2726056 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2400186 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2726057 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv1169457 CNV Deletion 17803354

Relevant External Links for P2RY12 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for P2RY12 Gene

Disorders for P2RY12 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for P2RY12 Gene (600515)


  • Bleeding disorder, platelet-type 8 (BDPLT8) [MIM:609821]: A condition characterized by mild to moderate mucocutaneous bleeding, and excessive bleeding after surgery or trauma. The defect is due to severe impairment of platelet response to ADP resulting in defective platelet aggregation. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11196645, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12578987, ECO:0000269 PubMed:25428217}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(14) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for P2RY12 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
thrombosis 60.1 7
bleeding 44.5 6
myocardial infarction 43 2
coronary artery disease 38 6
bleeding tendency 35 2

Relevant External Links for P2RY12

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with P2RY12: view

No data available for University of Copenhagen DISEASES and Genatlas for P2RY12 Gene

Publications for P2RY12 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of the platelet P2T(AC) ADP receptor: pharmacological comparison with another ADP receptor, the P2Y1 receptor. (PMID: 11502873) Takasaki J. … Furuichi K. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2001) 2 3 4 23
  2. Identification of the platelet ADP receptor targeted by antithrombotic drugs. (PMID: 11196645) Hollopeter G. … Conley P.B. (Nature 2001) 3 4 23
  3. Molecular bases of defective signal transduction in the platelet P2Y12 receptor of a patient with congenital bleeding. (PMID: 12578987) Cattaneo M. … Ruggeri Z.M. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003) 3 4 23
  4. Adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation is associated with P2Y12 gene sequence variations in healthy subjects. (PMID: 12912815) Fontana P. … Gaussem P. (Circulation 2003) 3 23 48
  5. P2Y12 H2 haplotype is associated with peripheral arterial disease: a case-control study. (PMID: 14662702) Fontana P. … Reny J.L. (Circulation 2003) 3 23 48

Products for P2RY12 Gene

Sources for P2RY12 Gene

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