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Aliases for PROK2 Gene

Aliases for PROK2 Gene

  • Prokineticin 2 2 3
  • Protein Bv8 Homolog 2 3 4
  • PK2 3 4 6
  • BV8 3 4 6
  • HH4 3 6
  • Prokineticin-2 3
  • KAL4 3
  • MIT1 3

External Ids for PROK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PROK2 Gene

  • GC03P070509
  • GC03M071434
  • GC03M071625
  • GC03M071741
  • GC03M071903

Summaries for PROK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PROK2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock that may function as the output component of the circadian clock. The secreted form of the encoded protein may also serve as a chemoattractant for neuronal precursor cells in the olfactory bulb. Proteins from other vertebrates which are similar to this gene product were isolated based on homology to snake venom and secretions from frog skin, and have been shown to have diverse functions. Mutations in this gene are associated with Kallmann syndrome 4. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PROK2 Gene

PROK2 (Prokineticin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PROK2 include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 4 with or without anosmia and kallmann syndrome 4. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is PROK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PROK2 Gene

  • May function as an output molecule from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that transmits behavioral circadian rhythm. May also function locally within the SCN to synchronize output. Potently contracts gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle

No data available for Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PROK2 Gene

Genomics for PROK2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PROK2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for PROK2 Gene

71,771,655 bp from pter
71,785,206 bp from pter
13,552 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PROK2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PROK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PROK2 Gene

Proteins for PROK2 Gene

  • Protein details for PROK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53Z79
    • Q6ISR0

    Protein attributes for PROK2 Gene

    129 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    14314 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for PROK2 Gene


neXtProt entry for PROK2 Gene

Proteomics data for PROK2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PROK2 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

Other Protein References for PROK2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PROK2 Gene

Domains for PROK2 Gene

Gene Families for PROK2 Gene


Protein Domains for PROK2 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PROK2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q9HC23
  • Belongs to the AVIT (prokineticin) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PROK2: view

Function for PROK2 Gene

Molecular function for PROK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: May function as an output molecule from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that transmits behavioral circadian rhythm. May also function locally within the SCN to synchronize output. Potently contracts gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: Activated by CLOCK and BMAL1 heterodimers and light; inhibited by period genes (PER1, PER2 and PER3) and cryptochrome genes (CRY1 and CRY2).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PROK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001664 G-protein coupled receptor binding TAS 12728244
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROK2: view

Phenotypes for PROK2 Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for PROK2:
inferred from 1 alleles
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PROK2: view

Animal Models for PROK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PROK2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PROK2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PROK2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PROK2 Gene

Localization for PROK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PROK2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PROK2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PROK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PROK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS 12466223
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROK2: view

Pathways for PROK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PROK2: view

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays

Interacting Proteins for PROK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PROK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity TAS 12728244
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IDA 12604792
GO:0006935 chemotaxis IDA 12604792
GO:0006954 inflammatory response NAS 11259612
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway NAS 11259612
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PROK2: view

Compounds for PROK2 Gene

(1) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PROK2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
vegf 39 5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PROK2: view

Transcripts for PROK2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PROK2 Gene

(9) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(7) Additional mRNA sequences :
(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for PROK2 Gene

Prokineticin 2:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PROK2

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PROK2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PROK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PROK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PROK2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PROK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (47.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PROK2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PROK2 Gene Hs.528665

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PROK2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in the testis and, at low levels, in the small intestine
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PROK2: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for PROK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PROK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PROK2 35
  • 99.22 (n)
  • 98.45 (a)
PROK2 36
  • 98 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PROK2 35
  • 85.16 (n)
  • 83.59 (a)
PROK2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LOC610873 35
  • 92.78 (n)
  • 91.75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prok2 35
  • 85.63 (n)
  • 88.99 (a)
Prok2 16
Prok2 36
  • 83 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PROK2 36
  • 59 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prok2 35
  • 85.93 (n)
  • 88.99 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PROK2 35
  • 68.49 (n)
  • 68.49 (a)
PROK2 36
  • 51 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PROK2 36
  • 49 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100485995 35
  • 68.25 (n)
  • 69.05 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prok2 35
  • 63.79 (n)
  • 66.67 (a)
prok2 36
  • 52 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PROK2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PROK2 Gene

Gene Tree for PROK2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PROK2 (if available)

Paralogs for PROK2 Gene

Paralogs for PROK2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PROK2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PROK2: view

Variants for PROK2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PROK2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1320015 -- 71,779,269(-) CCTCC(A/G)CGAAA intron-variant
rs1573959 -- 71,777,334(+) CCCCA(C/T)CTTTT intron-variant
rs2322141 -- 71,771,818(+) AATAC(C/T)GCTTT utr-variant-3-prime
rs2322142 -- 71,775,000(+) AATGT(C/T)TTCAT intron-variant
rs2322143 -- 71,776,722(+) TTGTC(A/C)GTTTC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PROK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv524847 CNV Loss 19592680

Relevant External Links for PROK2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PROK2 Gene

Disorders for PROK2 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for PROK2 Gene (607002)


  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 4 with or without anosmia (HH4) [MIM:610628]: A disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. In some cases, it is associated with non-reproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss. Anosmia or hyposmia is related to the absence or hypoplasia of the olfactory bulbs and tracts. Hypogonadism is due to deficiency in gonadotropin-releasing hormone and probably results from a failure of embryonic migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is referred to as Kallmann syndrome, whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17054399, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18559922, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23643382, ECO:0000269 PubMed:25077900}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting distinct genetic loci, including the gene represented in this entry. The genetics of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism involves various modes of transmission. Oligogenic inheritance has been reported in some patients carrying mutations in PROK2 as well as in other HH-associated genes including PROKR2 (PubMed:23643382). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23643382}.

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for PROK2 Gene

(1) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PROK2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
kallmann syndrome 90.9 7

Relevant External Links for PROK2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PROK2: view

Publications for PROK2 Gene

  1. Identification of two prokineticin cDNAs: recombinant proteins potently contract gastrointestinal smooth muscle. (PMID: 11259612) Li M. … Zhou Q.-Y. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2001) 2 3 4 23
  2. Identification and pharmacological characterization of prokineticin 2 beta as a selective ligand for prokineticin receptor 1. (PMID: 15772293) Chen J. … Liu C. (Mol. Pharmacol. 2005) 3 4 23
  3. Kallmann syndrome: mutations in the genes encoding prokineticin-2 and prokineticin receptor-2. (PMID: 17054399) Dode C. … Hardelin J.-P. (PLoS Genet. 2006) 3 4 23
  4. Mutations in prokineticin 2 and prokineticin receptor 2 genes in human gonadotrophin-releasing hormone deficiency: molecular genetics and clinical spectrum. (PMID: 18559922) Cole L.W. … Pitteloud N. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2008) 3 4 23
  5. Loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding prokineticin-2 or prokineticin receptor-2 cause autosomal recessive Kallmann syndrome. (PMID: 18682503) Abreu A.P. … Latronico A.C. (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2008) 3 23 48

Products for PROK2 Gene

Sources for PROK2 Gene

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