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Aliases for TAS2R38 Gene

Aliases for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Taste 2 Receptor Member 38 2 3 5
  • Taste Receptor, Type 2, Member 38 2 3
  • Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 61 3 4
  • PTC Bitter Taste Receptor 3 4
  • T2R38 3 4
  • T2R61 3 4
  • PTC 3 4
  • Taste Receptor Type 2 Member 38 3
  • Phenylthiocarbamide Tasting 2

External Ids for TAS2R38 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TAS2R38 Gene

  • PTC

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TAS2R38 Gene

  • GC00U991247
  • GC07M141002
  • GC07M141079
  • GC07M141125
  • GC07M141318
  • GC07M141672
  • GC07M135968

Summaries for TAS2R38 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TAS2R38 Gene

  • This gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor that controls the ability to taste glucosinolates, a family of bitter-tasting compounds found in plants of the Brassica sp. Synthetic compounds phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) have been identified as ligands for this receptor and have been used to test the genetic diversity of this gene. Although several allelic forms of this gene have been identified worldwide, there are two predominant common forms (taster and non-taster) found outside of Africa. These alleles differ at three nucleotide positions resulting in amino acid changes in the protein (A49P, A262V, and V296I) with the amino acid combination PAV identifying the taster variant (and AVI identifying the non-taster variant). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

GeneCards Summary for TAS2R38 Gene

TAS2R38 (Taste 2 Receptor Member 38) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TAS2R38 include Thiourea Tasting and Alexithymia. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Taste transduction. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and bitter taste receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is TAS2R3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for TAS2R38 Gene

Additional gene information for TAS2R38 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TAS2R38 Gene

Genomics for TAS2R38 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TAS2R38 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TAS2R38 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH07I142104 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 12.8 -131.4 -131376 2 ELF3 SOX13 FOXA2 SAP130 ARID4B MAX SIN3A ZNF384 CEBPG ZNF644 TAS2R38 CLEC5A MGAM2 MGAM
GH07I141995 Promoter/Enhancer 0.7 EPDnew ENCODE 12.1 -22.2 -22231 1.3 MGAM TAS2R38 MGAM2
GH07I141999 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 12 -25.8 -25802 0.4 OSR2 HNF4A KLF8 TCF7L2 TAS2R38 MGAM MGAM2
GH07I142030 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 10.9 -56.9 -56851 0.8 CTCF GATA3 HLF CEBPB CREB1 FOS CUX1 CLEC5A TAS2R38 MGAM2 MGAM
GH07I141960 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 4.6 +12.8 12778 0.9 ZBED1 JUNB CEBPG ATF2 ATF4 NFATC1 IKZF1 ATF7 ETV6 IKZF2 CLEC5A WEE2-AS1 OR9A4 TAS2R38 MGAM
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around TAS2R38 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TAS2R38 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for TAS2R38 Gene

Genomic Locations for TAS2R38 Gene
1,143 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TAS2R38 Gene

Genes around TAS2R38 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TAS2R38 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TAS2R38 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TAS2R38 Gene

Proteins for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Protein details for TAS2R38 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Taste receptor type 2 member 38
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A4D1U6
    • P59552
    • Q2M3E8
    • Q645W3
    • Q86UK3

    Protein attributes for TAS2R38 Gene

    333 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    37892 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Most taste cells may be activated by a limited number of bitter compounds; individual taste cells can discriminate among bitter stimuli.

neXtProt entry for TAS2R38 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TAS2R38 Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=89 and posLast=178178

Other Protein References for TAS2R38 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TAS2R38 Gene

Domains & Families for TAS2R38 Gene

Gene Families for TAS2R38 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Protein Domains for TAS2R38 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TAS2R38 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor T2R family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TAS2R38: view

Function for TAS2R38 Gene

Molecular function for TAS2R38 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor that may play a role in the perception of bitterness and is gustducin-linked. May play a role in sensing the chemical composition of the gastrointestinal content. The activity of this receptor may stimulate alpha gustducin, mediate PLC-beta-2 activation and lead to the gating of TRPM5 (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TAS2R38 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TAS2R38 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004871 signal transducer activity IEA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0033038 bitter taste receptor activity IDA 20022913
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAS2R38: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TAS2R38: view

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TAS2R38 Gene

Localization for TAS2R38 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R38 Gene

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TAS2R38 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 4

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TAS2R38 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS,IDA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IBA,IC 20022913
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAS2R38: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TAS2R38 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TAS2R38 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TAS2R38: view

Pathways by source for TAS2R38 Gene

Interacting Proteins for TAS2R38 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TAS2R38 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001580 detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste IDA 20022913
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0050896 response to stimulus IEA --
GO:0050909 sensory perception of taste IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TAS2R38: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TAS2R38 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TAS2R38 Gene

(6) Drugs for TAS2R38 Gene - From: BitterDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Propylthiouracil Approved, Investigational Pharma 9
Diphenidol Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma 1
Methimazole Approved Pharma ICAM-1 inhibitor 0
Yohimbine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Antagonist 28
Phenethyl isothiocyanate Investigational Pharma 12

(16) Additional Compounds for TAS2R38 Gene - From: BitterDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Allyl isothiocyanate
  • 2-Propenyl isothiocyanate
  • 3-Iso-Thiocyanatoprop-1-ene
  • 3-Isothiocyanato-1-propene
  • 3-Isothiocyanatoprop-1-ene
  • AITC
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TAS2R38: view

Transcripts for TAS2R38 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TAS2R38 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(1) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TAS2R38 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TAS2R38 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TAS2R38 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TAS2R38 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for TAS2R38 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TAS2R38 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TAS2R38 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TAS2R38 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells of the tongue and exclusively in gustducin-positive cells. Expressed in testis (PubMed:16720576).
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TAS2R38: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners , Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TAS2R38 Gene

Orthologs for TAS2R38 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TAS2R38 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TAS2R38 33 34
  • 99.1 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TAS2R38 33 34
  • 80.13 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TAS2R38 33 34
  • 76.54 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tas2r138 33 16 34
  • 76.54 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tas2r138 33
  • 76.13 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia T2R38 34
  • 48 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TAS2R7 34
  • 21 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TAS2R38 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TAS2R38 Gene

Gene Tree for TAS2R38 (if available)
Gene Tree for TAS2R38 (if available)

Paralogs for TAS2R38 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TAS2R38: view

Variants for TAS2R38 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TAS2R38 Gene

Variations in TAS2R38 are associated with the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC tasting) [MIM:171200]; also called thiourea tasting. The ability to taste the substance PTC and a number of related substances is genetically controlled. Genetic studies have demonstrated complex inheritance for this trait. For some people (and some chimpanzees also), the chemical PTC tastes very bitter. For others, it is tasteless. Actually, substantial variation in taste sensitivity exists in human. Five haplotypes arising from three coding SNPs in the TAS2R38 gene are associated with distinct phenotypes of PTC taste sensitivity.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TAS2R38 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs10246939 drug-response, Phenylthiocarbamide tasting 141,972,804(-) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1726866 drug-response, Phenylthiocarbamide tasting 141,972,905(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs713598 drug-response, Phenylthiocarbamide tasting 141,973,545(-) C/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000902355 -- 141,972,963(-) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000912185 -- 141,972,754(-) C/A coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TAS2R38 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv524927 CNV gain 19592680
nsv831161 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for TAS2R38 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 96.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.45; 82.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TAS2R38 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

Disorders for TAS2R38 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(5) MalaCards diseases for TAS2R38 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, GTR, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
thiourea tasting
  • phenylthiocarbamide tasting
dental caries
  • dental caries extending into pulp
common cold
  • acute coryza
upper respiratory tract disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for TAS2R38

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TAS2R38: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TAS2R38 Gene

Publications for TAS2R38 Gene

  1. Variation in the gene TAS2R38 is associated with the eating behavior disinhibition in Old Order Amish women. (PMID: 19782709) Dotson CD … Steinle NI (Appetite 2010) 3 22 44 58
  2. Variation in the bitter-taste receptor gene TAS2R38, and adiposity in a genetically isolated population in Southern Italy. (PMID: 18719631) Tepper BJ … Gasparini P (Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2008) 3 22 44 58
  3. Functional variants in TAS2R38 and TAS2R16 influence alcohol consumption in high-risk families of African-American origin. (PMID: 17250611) Wang JC … Goate AM (Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 2007) 3 22 44 58
  4. Bitter taste study in a sardinian genetic isolate supports the association of phenylthiocarbamide sensitivity to the TAS2R38 bitter receptor gene. (PMID: 15466815) Prodi DA … Angius A (Chemical senses 2004) 3 22 44 58
  5. Positional cloning of the human quantitative trait locus underlying taste sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide. (PMID: 12595690) Kim UK … Drayna D (Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003) 3 4 44 58

Products for TAS2R38 Gene

Sources for TAS2R38 Gene

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