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Aliases for MAPK9 Gene

Aliases for MAPK9 Gene

  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9 2 3
  • PRKM9 3 4 6
  • JNK2 3 4 6
  • Stress-Activated Protein Kinase JNK2 3 4
  • Stress-Activated Protein Kinase 1a 3 4
  • C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 2 3 4
  • MAP Kinase 9 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.24 4 64
  • Jun Kinase 2 3
  • MAPK 9 3 4
  • JNK-55 3 4
  • SAPK1a 3 4
  • C-Jun Kinase 2 3
  • JNK2ALPHA 3
  • EC 2.7.11 64
  • JNK2BETA 3
  • P54aSAPK 3
  • JNK2A 3
  • JNK2B 3
  • SAPK 3
  • P54a 3

External Ids for MAPK9 Gene

Previous Symbols for MAPK9 Gene

  • PRKM9

Summaries for MAPK9 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MAPK9 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to various cell stimuli. It is most closely related to MAPK8, both of which are involved in UV radiation induced apoptosis, thought to be related to the cytochrome c-mediated cell death pathway. This gene and MAPK8 are also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinases. This kinase blocks the ubiquitination of tumor suppressor p53, and thus it increases the stability of p53 in nonstressed cells. Studies of this gene's mouse counterpart suggest a key role in T-cell differentiation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MAPK9 Gene

MAPK9 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are PI-3K cascade and MAPK signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription factor binding and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase binding. An important paralog of this gene is MAPK11.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MAPK9 Gene

  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 phosphorylate and activate MAPK9/JNK2. In turn, MAPK9/JNK2 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. In response to oxidative or ribotoxic stresses, inhibits rRNA synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating the RNA polymerase 1-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including TP53 and YAP1. In T-cells, MAPK8 and MAPK9 are required for polarized differentiation of T-helper cells into Th1 cells. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, is activated by CARMA1, BCL10, MAP2K7 and MAP3K7/TAK1 to regulate JUN protein levels. Plays an important role in the osmotic stress-induced epithelial tight-junctions disruption. When activated, promotes beta-catenin/CTNNB1 degradation and inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Participates also in neurite growth in spiral ganglion neurons. Phosphorylates the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer and plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock (PubMed:22441692).

  • MAPK9 isoforms display different binding patterns: alpha-1 and alpha-2 preferentially bind to JUN, whereas beta-1 and beta-2 bind to ATF2. However, there is no correlation between binding and phosphorylation, which is achieved at about the same efficiency by all isoforms. JUNB is not a substrate for JNK2 alpha-2, and JUND binds only weakly to it

Tocris Summary for MAPK9 Gene

  • MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) are serine-threonine kinases that regulate a wide variety of cellular functions. Six groups of MAPK have so far been identified: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1, ERK2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), p38 isoforms (MAPK11, MAPK12, MAPK13, MAPK14), ERK5 (MAPK7), ERK3 (MAPK6) and ERK4 (MAPK4) and ERK7/8 (MAPK15). ERK 1 and ERK 2 transduce signals from growth factors and are key in regulating differentiation and proliferation in many cell types. Upon activation by MEK, ERK1 and 2 translocate to the nucleus where they phosphorylate transcription factors such as Elk1 and downstream kinases such as p90 RSK. JNK 1,2 and 3 (sometimes known as SAPKs or stress-activated kinases) and the p38 MAPKs (alpha-, beta-, delta and gamma- isoforms) are activated by UV irradiation, inflammatory cytokines and hyperosmolarity. The p38 MAPKs are also activated by lipopolysaccharide. Dysregulation of MAPK kinase pathways has been associated with various diseases including cancer (ERK), neurodegeneration (JNK) and inflammation (p38).

Gene Wiki entry for MAPK9 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MAPK9 Gene

Genomics for MAPK9 Gene

Genomic Location for MAPK9 Gene

Start:
180,233,143 bp from pter
End:
180,292,099 bp from pter
Size:
58,957 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for MAPK9 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for MAPK9 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MAPK9 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MAPK9 Gene

Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MAPK9 gene promoter:

Proteins for MAPK9 Gene

  • Protein details for MAPK9 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P45984-MK09_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9
    Protein Accession:
    P45984
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K0S3
    • B5BU66
    • B5M0B4
    • D3DWQ8
    • D3DWQ9
    • Q15708
    • Q15710
    • Q15711
    • Q8N5C5

    Protein attributes for MAPK9 Gene

    Size:
    424 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    48139 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with MECOM and DCLK2 (By similarity). Binds to at least four scaffolding proteins, MAPK8IP1/JIP-1, MAPK8IP2/JIP-2, MAPK8IP3/JIP-3/JSAP1 and SPAG9/MAPK8IP4/JIP-4. These proteins also bind other components of the JNK signaling pathway. Interacts with NFATC4. Interacts with ATF7; the interaction does not phosphorylate ATF7 but acts as a docking site for ATF7-associated partners such as JUN. Interacts with BCL10. Interacts with CTNNB1 and GSK3B.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MAPK9 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MAPK9 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for MAPK9 Gene

Proteomics data for MAPK9 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MAPK9 Gene

  • Dually phosphorylated on Thr-183 and Tyr-185 by MAP2K7 and MAP2K4, which activates the enzyme. Autophosphorylated in vitro.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Ubiquitination at Lys166 and Lys353

Domains for MAPK9 Gene

Gene Families for MAPK9 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

MK09_HUMAN
Domain:
  • The TXY motif contains the threonine and tyrosine residues whose phosphorylation activates the MAP kinases:
    • P45984
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.:
    • P45984
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase subfamily.:
    • P45984
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MAPK9: view

Function for MAPK9 Gene

Molecular function for MAPK9 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: Activated by threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation by either of two dual specificity kinases, MAP2K4 and MAP2K7. MAP2K4 shows a strong preference for Tyr-185 while MAP2K7 phosphorylates Tyr-183 preferentially. Inhibited by dual specificity phosphatases, such as DUSP1
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 phosphorylate and activate MAPK9/JNK2. In turn, MAPK9/JNK2 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. In response to oxidative or ribotoxic stresses, inhibits rRNA synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating the RNA polymerase 1-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including TP53 and YAP1. In T-cells, MAPK8 and MAPK9 are required for polarized differentiation of T-helper cells into Th1 cells. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, is activated by CARMA1, BCL10, MAP2K7 and MAP3K7/TAK1 to regulate JUN protein levels. Plays an important role in the osmotic stress-induced epithelial tight-junctions disruption. When activated, promotes beta-catenin/CTNNB1 degradation and inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Participates also in neurite growth in spiral ganglion neurons. Phosphorylates the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer and plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock (PubMed:22441692).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: MAPK9 isoforms display different binding patterns: alpha-1 and alpha-2 preferentially bind to JUN, whereas beta-1 and beta-2 bind to ATF2. However, there is no correlation between binding and phosphorylation, which is achieved at about the same efficiency by all isoforms. JUNB is not a substrate for JNK2 alpha-2, and JUND binds only weakly to it

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MAPK9 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MAPK9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity --
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity --
GO:0004705 JUN kinase activity IDA 8654373
GO:0004707 MAP kinase activity --
GO:0004713 protein tyrosine kinase activity --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MAPK9: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MAPK9: view

Animal Models for MAPK9 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MAPK9:

No data available for Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for MAPK9 Gene

Localization for MAPK9 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MAPK9 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for MAPK9 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MAPK9 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 4
cytoskeleton 2
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MAPK9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MAPK9: view

Pathways for MAPK9 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MAPK9: view

Pathways by source for MAPK9 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MAPK9 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade --
GO:0001836 release of cytochrome c from mitochondria IEA --
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0002224 toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0002755 MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MAPK9: view

Compounds for MAPK9 Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for MAPK9 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
BI 78D3 Selective, competitive JNK inhibitor [883065-90-5]
SP 600125 Novel and selective JNK inhibitor [129-56-6]
SU 3327 Selective JNK inhibitor [40045-50-9]
TCS JNK 5a Selective inhibitor of JNK2 and JNK3 [312917-14-9]
TCS JNK 6o Selective JNK inhibitor [894804-07-0]

(3) HMDB Compounds for MAPK9 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
Adenosine triphosphate
  • 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) Adenosine
56-65-5
ADP
  • adenosindiphosphorsaeure
58-64-0
Magnesium
  • Magnesium
7439-95-4

(1) Drugbank Compounds for MAPK9 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
N-{3-[5-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]phenyl}furan-2-carboxamide
target

(31) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for MAPK9 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
sp 600125 85 14
pd 98,059 58.4 2
helenalin 55.6 2
olomoucine 46.1 1
tyrosine 45.5 6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MAPK9: view

Transcripts for MAPK9 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MAPK9 Gene

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MAPK9 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b · 13c · 13d
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: -
SP6:

Relevant External Links for MAPK9 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
MAPK9
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
MAPK9

Expression for MAPK9 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MAPK9 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for MAPK9 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MAPK9 Gene Hs.484371

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with MAPK9: view

Orthologs for MAPK9 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for MAPK9 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MAPK9 36
  • 99.45 (n)
  • 100 (a)
MAPK9 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MAPK9 36
  • 93.37 (n)
  • 99.12 (a)
MAPK9 37
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MAPK9 36
  • 90.64 (n)
  • 97.17 (a)
MAPK9 37
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mapk9 36
  • 91.41 (n)
  • 99.05 (a)
Mapk9 16
Mapk9 37
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MAPK9 37
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MAPK9 37
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mapk9 36
  • 91.49 (n)
  • 99.05 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MAPK9 36
  • 84.53 (n)
  • 98.94 (a)
MAPK9 37
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MAPK9 37
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mapk9 36
  • 73.33 (n)
  • 85.78 (a)
mapk9 37
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta bsk 37
  • 74 (a)
OneToMany
bsk 38
  • 75 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea jnk-1 37
  • 55 (a)
OneToMany
Y51B9A.9 38
  • 34 (a)
jnk-1 38
  • 69 (a)
C49C3.10a 38
  • 33 (a)
F09C12.2 38
  • 37 (a)
C49C3.10b 38
  • 35 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes HOG1 37
  • 34 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 37
  • 58 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for MAPK9:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MAPK9 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for MAPK9 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for MAPK9 (if available)

Paralogs for MAPK9 Gene

Paralogs for MAPK9 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MAPK9: view

Variants for MAPK9 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MAPK9 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs6703 -- 180,233,786(+) ATCGC(A/T)ACTTA utr-variant-3-prime
rs9605 -- 180,236,251(-) CCCTA(C/T)TCAGA utr-variant-3-prime
rs13435 -- 180,234,692(-) GAGGC(A/G)GAAAC utr-variant-3-prime
rs14736 -- 180,235,906(-) TATGT(G/T)TATTA utr-variant-3-prime
rs730688 -- 180,277,903(-) TTTTC(A/G)CTTCC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MAPK9 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1881e1 CNV Complex 17122850
esv2731323 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv883290 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2678619 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv823363 CNV Loss 20364138
nsv830563 CNV Loss 17160897
nsv10787 CNV Gain 18304495

Relevant External Links for MAPK9 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
MAPK9

Disorders for MAPK9 Gene

(21) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MAPK9 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
necrosis 38.5 5
tumors 29.2 10
glioma 24.1 2
myeloid leukemia chronic 22.1 2
glioblastoma 19.5 1

Relevant External Links for MAPK9

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
MAPK9
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
MAPK9
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MAPK9: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MAPK9 Gene

Publications for MAPK9 Gene

  1. JNK2 contains a specificity-determining region responsible for efficient c-Jun binding and phosphorylation. (PMID: 8001819) Kallunki T. … Karin M. (Genes Dev. 1994) 2 3 4 23
  2. The CARMA1-Bcl10 signaling complex selectively regulates JNK2 kinase in the T cell receptor-signaling pathway. (PMID: 17189706) Blonska M. … Lin X. (Immunity 2007) 3 4 23
  3. The crystal structure of JNK2 reveals conformational flexibility in the MAP kinase insert and indicates its involvement in the regulation of catalytic activity. (PMID: 18801372) Shaw D. … Kuglstatter A. (J. Mol. Biol. 2008) 3 4 23
  4. Autophosphorylation properties of inactive and active JNK2. (PMID: 17637567) Pimienta G. … Pascual J. (Cell Cycle 2007) 3 23
  5. Interaction of Neisseria meningitidis with human brain microvascular endothelial cells: role of MAP- and tyrosine kinases in invasion and inflammatory cytokine release. (PMID: 15527495) Sokolova O. … Schubert-Unkmeir A. (Cell. Microbiol. 2004) 3 23

Products for MAPK9 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for MAPK9

Sources for MAPK9 Gene

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