Aliases for PRKCZ Gene
External Ids for PRKCZ Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRKCZ Gene
Protein kinase C (PKC) zeta is a member of the PKC family of serine/threonine kinases which are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and secretion. Unlike the classical PKC isoenzymes which are calcium-dependent, PKC zeta exhibits a kinase activity which is independent of calcium and diacylglycerol but not of phosphatidylserine. Furthermore, it is insensitive to typical PKC inhibitors and cannot be activated by phorbol ester. Unlike the classical PKC isoenzymes, it has only a single zinc finger module. These structural and biochemical properties indicate that the zeta subspecies is related to, but distinct from other isoenzymes of PKC. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for PRKCZ Gene
PRKCZ (Protein Kinase C, Zeta) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRKCZ include parainfluenza virus type 3. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Ras signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include protein serine/threonine kinase activity and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PRKCB.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKCZ Gene
Calcium- and diacylglycerol-independent serine/threonine-protein kinase that functions in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, and is involved in NF-kappa-B activation, mitogenic signaling, cell proliferation, cell polarity, inflammatory response and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment in macrophages, or following mitogenic stimuli, functions downstream of PI3K to activate MAP2K1/MEK1-MAPK1/ERK2 signaling cascade independently of RAF1 activation. Required for insulin-dependent activation of AKT3, but may function as an adapter rather than a direct activator. Upon insulin treatment may act as a downstream effector of PI3K and contribute to the activation of translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 and subsequent glucose transport in adipocytes. In EGF-induced cells, binds and activates MAP2K5/MEK5-MAPK7/ERK5 independently of its kinase activity and can activate JUN promoter through MEF2C. Through binding with SQSTM1/p62, functions in interleukin-1 signaling and activation of NF-kappa-B with the specific adapters RIPK1 and TRAF6. Participates in TNF-dependent transactivation of NF-kappa-B by phosphorylating and activating IKBKB kinase, which in turn leads to the degradation of NF-kappa-B inhibitors. In migrating astrocytes, forms a cytoplasmic complex with PARD6A and is recruited by CDC42 to function in the establishment of cell polarity along with the microtubule motor and dynein. In association with FEZ1, stimulates neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. In the inflammatory response, is required for the T-helper 2 (Th2) differentiation process, including interleukin production, efficient activation of JAK1 and the subsequent phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT6. May be involved in development of allergic airway inflammation (asthma), a process dependent on Th2 immune response. In the NF-kappa-B-mediated inflammatory response, can relieve SETD6-dependent repression of NF-kappa-B target genes by phosphorylating the RELA subunit at Ser-311. Necessary and sufficient for LTP maintenance in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. In vein endothelial cells treated with the oxidant peroxynitrite, phosphorylates STK11 leading to nuclear export of STK11, subsequent inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling, and increased apoptosis.
Protein kinase C (PKC) refers to a family of serine/threonine protein kinases grouped by their activation mechanism. Classical or conventional PKCs (cPKC alpha-, betaI- , betaII- and gamma-) are activated by phosphatidylserine in a calcium dependent manner and can bind diacylglycerol (DAG). The Ca2+ insensitive novel PKCs (nPKCs epsilon-, delta-, theta- and eta- isotypes) are also activated by DAG and phosphatidylserine. The atypical PKCs (aPKCs iota- and zeta-) are insensitive to Ca2+, DAG and phorbol esters. All PKCs isoforms consist of a highly conserved catalytic domain connected to a regulatory domain via a hinge region. The physiological roles of PKCs are vast. This due to PKC phosphorylation and activation of multiple target proteins, which are involved in signal transduction pathways including, but not limited to, receptor desensitization, modulation of membrane structure events, regulation of transcription, regulation of cell growth, immune responses, and in learning and memory.