Aliases for PRKCE Gene
External Ids for PRKCE Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRKCE Gene
Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This kinase has been shown to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as neuron channel activation, apoptosis, cardioprotection from ischemia, heat shock response, as well as insulin exocytosis. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this kinase is important for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated signaling in activated macrophages and may also play a role in controlling anxiety-like behavior. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for PRKCE Gene
PRKCE (Protein Kinase C, Epsilon) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRKCE include rift valley fever and ischemia. Among its related pathways are Signaling by FGFR and Signaling by FGFR. GO annotations related to this gene include signal transducer activity and enzyme activator activity. An important paralog of this gene is PRKCB.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRKCE Gene
Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays essential roles in the regulation of multiple cellular processes linked to cytoskeletal proteins, such as cell adhesion, motility, migration and cell cycle, functions in neuron growth and ion channel regulation, and is involved in immune response, cancer cell invasion and regulation of apoptosis. Mediates cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix via integrin-dependent signaling, by mediating angiotensin-2-induced activation of integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) in cardiac fibroblasts. Phosphorylates MARCKS, which phosphorylates and activates PTK2/FAK, leading to the spread of cardiomyocytes. Involved in the control of the directional transport of ITGB1 in mesenchymal cells by phosphorylating vimentin (VIM), an intermediate filament (IF) protein. In epithelial cells, associates with and phosphorylates keratin-8 (KRT8), which induces targeting of desmoplakin at desmosomes and regulates cell-cell contact. Phosphorylates IQGAP1, which binds to CDC42, mediating epithelial cell-cell detachment prior to migration. In HeLa cells, contributes to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced cell migration, and in human corneal epithelial cells, plays a critical role in wound healing after activation by HGF. During cytokinesis, forms a complex with YWHAB, which is crucial for daughter cell separation, and facilitates abscission by a mechanism which may implicate the regulation of RHOA. In cardiac myocytes, regulates myofilament function and excitation coupling at the Z-lines, where it is indirectly associated with F-actin via interaction with COPB1. During endothelin-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, mediates activation of PTK2/FAK, which is critical for cardiomyocyte survival and regulation of sarcomere length. Plays a role in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy via persistent phosphorylation of troponin I (TNNI3). Involved in nerve growth factor (NFG)-induced neurite outgrowth and neuron morphological change independently of its kinase activity, by inhibition of RHOA pathway, activation of CDC42 and cytoskeletal rearrangement. May be involved in presynaptic facilitation by mediating phorbol ester-induced synaptic potentiation. Phosphorylates gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 (GABRG2), which reduces the response of GABA receptors to ethanol and benzodiazepines and may mediate acute tolerance to the intoxicating effects of ethanol. Upon PMA treatment, phosphorylates the capsaicin- and heat-activated cation channel TRPV1, which is required for bradykinin-induced sensitization of the heat response in nociceptive neurons. Is able to form a complex with PDLIM5 and N-type calcium channel, and may enhance channel activities and potentiates fast synaptic transmission by phosphorylating the pore-forming alpha subunit CACNA1B (CaV2.2). In prostate cancer cells, interacts with and phosphorylates STAT3, which increases DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of STAT3 and seems to be essential for prostate cancer cell invasion. Downstream of TLR4, plays an important role in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune response by phosphorylating and activating TICAM2/TRAM, which in turn activates the transcription factor IRF3 and subsequent cytokines production. In differentiating erythroid progenitors, is regulated by EPO and controls the protection against the TNFSF10/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, via BCL2. May be involved in the regulation of the insulin-induced phosphorylation and activation of AKT1.
Protein kinase C (PKC) refers to a family of serine/threonine protein kinases grouped by their activation mechanism. Classical or conventional PKCs (cPKC alpha-, betaI- , betaII- and gamma-) are activated by phosphatidylserine in a calcium dependent manner and can bind diacylglycerol (DAG). The Ca2+ insensitive novel PKCs (nPKCs epsilon-, delta-, theta- and eta- isotypes) are also activated by DAG and phosphatidylserine. The atypical PKCs (aPKCs iota- and zeta-) are insensitive to Ca2+, DAG and phorbol esters. All PKCs isoforms consist of a highly conserved catalytic domain connected to a regulatory domain via a hinge region. The physiological roles of PKCs are vast. This due to PKC phosphorylation and activation of multiple target proteins, which are involved in signal transduction pathways including, but not limited to, receptor desensitization, modulation of membrane structure events, regulation of transcription, regulation of cell growth, immune responses, and in learning and memory.