Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for PPAT Gene

Aliases for PPAT Gene

  • Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate Amidotransferase 2 3 5
  • Glutamine Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate Amidotransferase 3 4
  • EC 4 61
  • ATASE 3 4
  • GPAT 3 4
  • Glutamine Phosphoribosylpyrophosphatate Amidotransferase 3
  • Glutamine PRPP Amidotransferase 3
  • Amidophosphoribosyltransferase 3
  • PRAT 3

External Ids for PPAT Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PPAT Gene

  • GC04M057063
  • GC04M057221
  • GC04M057109
  • GC04M057175
  • GC04M057100
  • GC04M056954
  • GC04M057259
  • GC04M053213

Summaries for PPAT Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PPAT Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the purine/pyrimidine phosphoribosyltransferase family. It is a regulatory allosteric enzyme that catalyzes the first step of de novo purine nucleotide biosythetic pathway. This gene and PAICS/AIRC gene, a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing steps six and seven of this pathway, are located in close proximity on chromosome 4, and divergently transcribed from an intergenic region. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PPAT Gene

PPAT (Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate Amidotransferase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PPAT include Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthetase Superactivity and Purine-Pyrimidine Metabolic Disorder. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and One carbon pool by folate. GO annotations related to this gene include 4 iron, 4 sulfur cluster binding and amidophosphoribosyltransferase activity.

Gene Wiki entry for PPAT Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PPAT Gene

Genomics for PPAT Gene

Regulatory Elements for PPAT Gene

Enhancers for PPAT Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH04F056412 1 FANTOM5 12.6 +23.5 23462 0.2 AASDH PAICS PPAT LOC100506514
GH04F056465 0.5 ENCODE 11.9 -31.5 -31515 4.3 PKNOX1 CREB3L1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 YY1 FOS SP3 SP5 NFYC SRP72 AASDH PAICS PPAT NOA1 ENSG00000251799 SPINK2 RPL7AP31 ARL9 GC04M056462
GH04F056408 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 11.8 +25.2 25220 2.9 PKNOX1 ZBTB40 YY1 FOS ZNF362 REST ZNF518A NR2F2 KAT8 RFX3 SRP72 AASDH PPAT PAICS ENSG00000269921 ENSG00000251799 SPINK2 LOC100506514
GH04F056540 0.5 Ensembl 11 -105.3 -105265 0.2 ATF3 ZNF512 ATF2 ARL9 SRP72 PAICS PPAT SPINK2 ENSG00000251799 HOPX AASDH THEGL GLDCP1
GH04F056799 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 10.6 -364.5 -364498 1.5 ATF1 TBL1XR1 WRNIP1 ZNF48 RAD21 YY1 GATA2 ZNF143 CREM ZNF654 SPINK2 PAICS PPAT NOA1 POLR2B SRP72 REST ENSG00000269949 GC04P056807 LOC105377668
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association Download Table
Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PPAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PPAT Gene

56,393,362 bp from pter
56,435,636 bp from pter
42,275 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PPAT Gene

Genes around PPAT on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PPAT Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PPAT Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PPAT Gene

Proteins for PPAT Gene

  • Protein details for PPAT Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for PPAT Gene

    517 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    57399 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Name=[4Fe-4S] cluster; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:49883;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer.

neXtProt entry for PPAT Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PPAT Gene


Post-translational modifications for PPAT Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 99, Lys 349, and Lys 372
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PPAT Gene

Domains & Families for PPAT Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PPAT Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 glutamine amidotransferase type-2 domain.
  • In the C-terminal section; belongs to the purine/pyrimidine phosphoribosyltransferase family.
  • Contains 1 glutamine amidotransferase type-2 domain.
  • In the C-terminal section; belongs to the purine/pyrimidine phosphoribosyltransferase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PPAT: view

No data available for Gene Families for PPAT Gene

Function for PPAT Gene

Molecular function for PPAT Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase,catalyzing the first step of the de novo purine biosynthesis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
5-phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine + diphosphate + L-glutamate = L-glutamine + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate + H(2)O.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PPAT Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PPAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0004044 amidophosphoribosyltransferase activity TAS --
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0016757 transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups IEA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPAT: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PPAT: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for PPAT

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PPAT

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PPAT Gene

Localization for PPAT Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PPAT Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PPAT gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PPAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPAT: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPAT Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PPAT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PPAT: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q06203-PUR1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Purine metabolism; IMP biosynthesis via de novo pathway; N(1)-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)glycinamide from 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate: step 1/2.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PPAT Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000082 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle IEA --
GO:0001822 kidney development IEA --
GO:0006164 purine nucleotide biosynthetic process TAS 8106516
GO:0006189 de novo IMP biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006541 glutamine metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPAT: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PPAT Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PPAT Gene

(18) Drugs for PPAT Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Glutamine Approved, Investigational Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target, product of 0
Fluorouracil Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate RNA processing inhibitor and thymidylate synthase inhibitor 1791
Mercaptopurine Approved Pharma Target 0
Azathioprine Approved Pharma inhibitor 165
Water Approved Pharma 0

(24) Additional Compounds for PPAT Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • 5-P-beta-D-Ribosyl-amine
  • 5-P-beta-delta-Ribosyl-amine
  • 5-Phospho-beta-D-ribosyl-amine
  • 5-Phospho-beta-D-ribosylamine
  • 5-Phospho-beta-delta-ribosyl-amine
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate
  • 5-Phospho-a-D-ribose-1-diphosphate
  • 5-Phospho-a-D-ribosyl pyrophosphate
  • 5-Phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate
  • 5-Phospho-alpha-D-ribose-1-diphosphate
  • 5-Phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl pyrophosphate
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PPAT: view

Transcripts for PPAT Gene

Unigene Clusters for PPAT Gene

Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PPAT

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PPAT Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for PPAT Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PPAT Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for PPAT Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PPAT Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (16.8) and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (8.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PPAT Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PPAT Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PPAT Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PPAT Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PPAT Gene:

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PPAT: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PPAT Gene

Orthologs for PPAT Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PPAT Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PPAT 34 35
  • 99.42 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PPAT 34 35
  • 92.46 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PPAT 34 35
  • 91.6 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PPAT 35
  • 88 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PPAT 35
  • 86 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ppat 34 16 35
  • 85.94 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ppat 34
  • 85.82 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PPAT 34 35
  • 78.06 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PPAT 35
  • 82 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ppat 34
  • 72.98 (n)
MGC76221 34
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC68694 34
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ppat 34 35
  • 68.96 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.6272 34
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Prat2 36 34 35
  • 60.01 (n)
Prat 36 35
  • 60 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000179 34
  • 57.64 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea CELE_T04A8.5 34
  • 56.07 (n)
T04A8.5 36 35
  • 46 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ADE4 35 37
  • 32 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons ASE1 34
  • 51.23 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.1528 34
Species where no ortholog for PPAT was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PPAT Gene

Gene Tree for PPAT (if available)
Gene Tree for PPAT (if available)

Paralogs for PPAT Gene Pseudogenes for PPAT Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PPAT: view

No data available for Paralogs for PPAT Gene

Variants for PPAT Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PPAT Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs10000147 -- 56,394,795(+) TATTC(A/G)CATTC utr-variant-3-prime
rs1042037 -- 56,394,865(-) AAAAA(A/T)AATAA utr-variant-3-prime
rs1042040 -- 56,394,132(-) AAGAT(C/G)ACTTG utr-variant-3-prime
rs1060472 -- 56,393,299(+) CCATG(A/C)TGTTT downstream-variant-500B
rs1062466 -- 56,394,100(-) AAGAA(A/T)TTTTA utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PPAT Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv5213n100 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1136857 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1161086 CNV duplication 26073780
nsv4347 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv829940 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for PPAT Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 19.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.95; 19.65% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PPAT Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPAT Gene

Disorders for PPAT Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for PPAT Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity
  • gout, prps-related
purine-pyrimidine metabolic disorder
  • inborn errors of purine-pyrimidine metabolism
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PPAT in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PPAT

Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PPAT: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PPAT Gene

Publications for PPAT Gene

  1. Two genes for de novo purine nucleotide synthesis on human chromosome 4 are closely linked and divergently transcribed. (PMID: 8106516) Brayton K.A. … Zalkin H. (J. Biol. Chem. 1994) 3 4 22 64
  2. Molecular cloning of human amidophosphoribosyltransferase. (PMID: 8380692) Iwahana H. … Itakura M. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1993) 3 4 22 64
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 64
  4. Interdomain signaling in glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase. (PMID: 10593947) Bera A.K. … Zalkin H. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999) 3 22 64
  5. Role of NRF-1 in bidirectional transcription of the human GPAT-AIRC purine biosynthesis locus. (PMID: 9108165) Chen S. … Zalkin H. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1997) 3 22 64

Products for PPAT Gene

Sources for PPAT Gene

Loading form....