Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for MRPS21 Gene

Aliases for MRPS21 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S21 2 3 5
  • MRP-S21 3 4
  • RPMS21 3 4
  • S21mt 3 4
  • 28S Ribosomal Protein S21, Mitochondrial 3
  • Mitochondrial 28S Ribosomal Protein S21 3
  • MDS016 3

External Ids for MRPS21 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MRPS21 Gene

  • GC01P147917
  • GC01P146008
  • GC01P147041
  • GC01P147482
  • GC01P147079
  • GC01P148532
  • GC01P150266
  • GC01P121644

Summaries for MRPS21 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MRPS21 Gene

  • Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S21P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1p, 1q, 9p, 10p, 10q, 16q, and 17q. Available sequence data analyses identified splice variants that differ in the 5' UTR; both transcripts encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MRPS21 Gene

MRPS21 (Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S21) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Mitochondrial translation and Organelle biogenesis and maintenance. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and structural constituent of ribosome.

Gene Wiki entry for MRPS21 Gene

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MRPS21 Gene

Genomics for MRPS21 Gene

Regulatory Elements for MRPS21 Gene

Enhancers for MRPS21 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
- Elite enhancer/Elite enhancer-gene association

Enhancers around MRPS21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for MRPS21 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Location for MRPS21 Gene

150,293,720 bp from pter
150,308,979 bp from pter
15,260 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MRPS21 Gene

Genes around MRPS21 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MRPS21 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MRPS21 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MRPS21 Gene

Proteins for MRPS21 Gene

  • Protein details for MRPS21 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    28S ribosomal protein S21, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5TB11
    • Q9BST6

    Protein attributes for MRPS21 Gene

    87 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    10742 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the mitochondrial ribosome small subunit (28S) which comprises a 12S rRNA and about 30 distinct proteins.
    • Sequence=AAG14953.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MRPS21 Gene

neXtProt entry for MRPS21 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MRPS21 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 40
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MRPS21 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MRPS21 Gene

Domains & Families for MRPS21 Gene

Gene Families for MRPS21 Gene

Protein Domains for MRPS21 Gene


Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ribosomal protein S21P family.
  • Belongs to the ribosomal protein S21P family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MRPS21: view

Function for MRPS21 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MRPS21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome NAS 11279123
GO:0044822 poly(A) RNA binding IDA 22681889
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS21: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MRPS21: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MRPS21 Gene

Localization for MRPS21 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPS21 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MRPS21 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MRPS21 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
extracellular 3
cytosol 2
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MRPS21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA,TAS --
GO:0005763 mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit IDA 11279123
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS21: view

Pathways & Interactions for MRPS21 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MRPS21: view

Interacting Proteins for MRPS21 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MRPS21 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation NAS 11279123
GO:0032543 mitochondrial translation ISS 11402041
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation TAS --
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS21: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MRPS21 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MRPS21 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for MRPS21 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MRPS21 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MRPS21 Gene

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPS21 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MRPS21 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MRPS21 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MRPS21 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MRPS21 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (24.9) and Breast (20.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for MRPS21 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MRPS21 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MRPS21 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MRPS21 Gene:

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MRPS21: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MRPS21 Gene

Orthologs for MRPS21 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MRPS21 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MRPS21 34
  • 93.87 (n)
  • 96.55 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MRPS21 34
  • 91.19 (n)
  • 94.25 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mrps21 34
  • 85.06 (n)
  • 90.8 (a)
Mrps21 16
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MRPS21 34
  • 100 (n)
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mrps21 34
  • 86.59 (n)
  • 91.95 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MRPS21 34
  • 67.43 (n)
  • 70.11 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mrps21 34
  • 67.82 (n)
  • 70.11 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mrps21 34
  • 61.3 (n)
  • 60.92 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009152 34
  • 57.25 (n)
  • 54.12 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mRpS21 34
  • 53.33 (n)
  • 50.59 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MRPS21 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for MRPS21 Gene

Gene Tree for MRPS21 (if available)
Gene Tree for MRPS21 (if available)

Paralogs for MRPS21 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for MRPS21 Gene

Variants for MRPS21 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MRPS21 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs4845 - 150,308,116(+) CCGCC(A/G)GCGAC reference, missense
rs10480 - 150,308,112(+) CATGC(C/T)GCCGG reference, missense
rs8006 -- 150,308,367(+) TGTTT(C/G)TATAT utr-variant-3-prime
rs9913 -- 150,308,288(+) CTTTT(C/T)TTTGT utr-variant-3-prime
rs11294 -- 150,308,271(+) CAGTT(C/T)TCTCT utr-variant-3-prime

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MRPS21 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3587504 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1009508 CNV loss 25217958
nsv1011223 CNV gain 25217958
nsv831548 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for MRPS21 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 78.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.71; 73.17% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for MRPS21 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPS21 Gene

Disorders for MRPS21 Gene

Relevant External Links for MRPS21

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:

No disorders were found for MRPS21 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MRPS21 Gene

Publications for MRPS21 Gene

  1. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson S.L. … O'Brien S.J. (PLoS ONE 2010) 3 46 65
  2. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard D.S. … Malek J. (Genome Res. 2004) 3 4 65
  3. The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome: identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PMID: 11279123) Koc E.C. … Spremulli L.L. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4 65
  4. Proteomic analysis of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of protein components in the 28S small subunit. (PMID: 11402041) Suzuki T. … Watanabe K. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4 65
  5. The BioPlex Network: A Systematic Exploration of the Human Interactome. (PMID: 26186194) Huttlin E.L. … Gygi S.P. (Cell 2015) 3 65

Products for MRPS21 Gene

Sources for MRPS21 Gene

Loading form....