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Aliases for PON1 Gene

Aliases for PON1 Gene

  • Paraoxonase 1 2 3 5
  • Serum Aryldialkylphosphatase 1 3 4
  • Aromatic Esterase 1 3 4
  • Arylesterase 1 2 3
  • A-Esterase 1 3 4
  • Esterase A 2 3
  • PON 1 3 4
  • K-45 3 4
  • PON 3 4
  • Serum Aryldiakylphosphatase 3
  • Arylesterase B-Type 3
  • Paraoxonase B-Type 3
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • MVCD5 3
  • ESA 3

External Ids for PON1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PON1 Gene

  • PON

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PON1 Gene

  • GC07M093462
  • GC07M094525
  • GC07M094539
  • GC07M094571
  • GC07M094764
  • GC07M094926
  • GC07M089534

Summaries for PON1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PON1 Gene

  • The enzyme encoded by this gene is an arylesterase that mainly hydrolyzes paroxon to produce p-nitrophenol. Paroxon is an organophosphorus anticholinesterase compound that is produced in vivo by oxidation of the insecticide parathion. Polymorphisms in this gene are a risk factor in coronary artery disease. The gene is found in a cluster of three related paraoxonase genes at 7q21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PON1 Gene

PON1 (Paraoxonase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PON1 include Microvascular Complications Of Diabetes 5 and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Phase I, non P450. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and phospholipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is PON2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON1 Gene

  • Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Mediates an enzymatic protection of low density lipoproteins against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to atheroma formation.

Gene Wiki entry for PON1 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PON1 Gene

Genomics for PON1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for PON1 Gene

Enhancers for PON1 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around PON1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PON1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around PON1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for PON1 Gene

95,297,676 bp from pter
95,324,707 bp from pter
27,032 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PON1 Gene

Genes around PON1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PON1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PON1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PON1 Gene

Proteins for PON1 Gene

  • Protein details for PON1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RA40
    • Q16052
    • Q6B0J6
    • Q9UCB1

    Protein attributes for PON1 Gene

    355 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39731 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. Heterooligomer with phosphate-binding protein (HPBP). Interacts with CLU.
    • The preferential association of PON1 with HDL is mediated in part by its signal peptide, by binding phospholipids directly, rather than binding apo AI. The retained signal peptide may allow transfer of the protein between phospholipid surfaces.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PON1 Gene

neXtProt entry for PON1 Gene

Proteomics data for PON1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PON1 Gene

Other Protein References for PON1 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PON1 Gene

Domains & Families for PON1 Gene

Gene Families for PON1 Gene

Protein Domains for PON1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PON1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the paraoxonase family.
  • Belongs to the paraoxonase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PON1: view

Function for PON1 Gene

Molecular function for PON1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
paraoxonase,high-density-lipoprotein associated enzyme,susceptibility locus for coronary heart disease but not myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetic patients and for Parkinson disease in some populations but not in Chinese in Taiwan
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
A phenyl acetate + H(2)O = a phenol + acetate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
An aryl dialkyl phosphate + H(2)O = dialkyl phosphate + an aryl alcohol.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
An N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone + H(2)O = an N-acyl-L-homoserine.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Hydrolyzes the toxic metabolites of a variety of organophosphorus insecticides. Capable of hydrolyzing a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and lactones, and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Mediates an enzymatic protection of low density lipoproteins against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to atheroma formation.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PON1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PON1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IDA 15098021
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IDA 15772423
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PON1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PON1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PON1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PON1:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PON1 Gene

Localization for PON1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON1 Gene

Secreted, extracellular space.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PON1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PON1 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
mitochondrion 2
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1
golgi apparatus 1
nucleus 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PON1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region NAS 14718574
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON1: view

Pathways & Interactions for PON1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PON1: view

Pathways by source for PON1 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for PON1 Gene
1 PharmGKB pathway for PON1 Gene
1 KEGG pathway for PON1 Gene

Interacting Proteins for PON1 Gene

STRING Interaction Network Preview (showing 3 interactants - click image to see details)
Selected Interacting proteins: ENSP00000222381 P27169-PON1_HUMAN for PON1 Gene via STRING I2D

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PON1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0008203 cholesterol metabolic process IEA --
GO:0032411 positive regulation of transporter activity IDA 15721011
GO:0034445 NOT negative regulation of plasma lipoprotein particle oxidation IDA 15342686
GO:0046395 carboxylic acid catabolic process IDA 7638166
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PON1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PON1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PON1 Gene

(49) Drugs for PON1 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
atorvastatin Approved Pharma Competitive, Inhibitor 0
Cefazolin Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 104
Simvastatin Approved Pharma Competitive, Inhibitor HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor 499
Epirubicin Approved Pharma 366
Fluorouracil Approved Pharma RNA processing inhibitor and thymidylate synthase inhibitor 1697

(57) Additional Compounds for PON1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • O,O-Diethyl-O-p-nitrophenylphosphoric acid
  • Alkron
  • Alleron
  • American cyanamid 3422
  • Aphamite
  • Aqua 9-Parathion
  • 1-Hexanol
  • 1-Hexyl alcohol
  • 1-Hydroxyhexane
  • Alcohol C-6
  • Alcohol(C6)
  • 1-Pentanol
  • 1-Pentol
  • 1-Pentyl alcohol
  • Alcool amylique
  • Alcool amylique (french)
4-Hydroxyphenyl acetate
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PON1: view

Transcripts for PON1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PON1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PON1 Gene

Paraoxonase 1:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PON1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b
SP1: -
SP2: - -

Relevant External Links for PON1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PON1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PON1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PON1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x48.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PON1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Plasma (24.1), Serum (21.7), and Synovial fluid (8.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PON1 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PON1 Gene Hs.370995

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PON1 Gene

Tissue specificity: Plasma, associated with HDL (at protein level). Expressed in liver, but not in heart, brain, placenta, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney or pancreas.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PON1: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PON1 Gene

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery for PON1 Gene

Orthologs for PON1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PON1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PON1 35
  • 85.35 (n)
  • 82.25 (a)
PON1 36
  • 82 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PON1 35
  • 89.11 (n)
  • 87.89 (a)
PON1 36
  • 88 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pon1 35
  • 83.19 (n)
  • 82.25 (a)
Pon1 16
Pon1 36
  • 82 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PON1 35
  • 99.53 (n)
  • 99.44 (a)
PON1 36
  • 92 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pon1 35
  • 82.54 (n)
  • 80.56 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PON1 36
  • 70 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PON2 36
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 56 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia pon1-prov 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pon1 36
  • 48 (a)
pon2 36
  • 53 (a)
zgc:174637 36
  • 52 (a)
zgc:174637 36
  • 51 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mec-6 36
  • 20 (a)
poml-2 36
  • 26 (a)
poml-3 36
  • 27 (a)
poml-4 36
  • 26 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PON1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PON1 Gene

Gene Tree for PON1 (if available)
Gene Tree for PON1 (if available)

Paralogs for PON1 Gene

Paralogs for PON1 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PON1 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PON1: view

Variants for PON1 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PON1 Gene

The allelic form of the enzyme with Gln-192 (allozyme A) hydrolyzes paraoxon with a low turnover number and the one with Arg-192 (allozyme B) with a high turnover number.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PON1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs854560 - 95,316,772(+) CTCCA(A/C/G/N/T)GTCTT reference, missense
rs662 - 95,308,134(-) CTTAC(A/G)ATCCT reference, missense
VAR_015882 -
rs13306698 - 95,311,470(-) CCATC(A/G)GACAT reference, missense
rs854550 -- 95,297,930(+) ATCAG(C/T)TTCTA downstream-variant-500B

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PON1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv888740 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv888741 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv5851 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv528555 CNV Loss 19592680

Variation tolerance for PON1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 91.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.06; 80.32% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PON1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for PON1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(32) MalaCards diseases for PON1 Gene - From: OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
microvascular complications of diabetes 5
  • diabetic nephropathy
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
coronary artery disease
  • chronic myocardial ischemia
coronary stenosis
  • coronary artery stenosis
artery disease
  • arteriopathic disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PON1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Microvascular complications of diabetes 5 (MVCD5) [MIM:612633]: Pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Homozygosity for the Leu-55 allele is strongly associated with the development of retinal disease in diabetic patients.

Relevant External Links for PON1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PON1: view

No data available for Genatlas for PON1 Gene

Publications for PON1 Gene

  1. New paraoxonase 1 polymorphism I102V and the risk of prostate cancer in Finnish men. (PMID: 12783936) Marchesani M. … Salonen J.T. (J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2003) 3 4 48 67
  2. Novel purification strategy for human PON1 and inhibition of the activity by cephalosporin and aminoglikozide derived antibiotics. (PMID: 16600468) Sinan S. … Arslan O. (Biochimie 2006) 3 25 26
  3. Paraoxonase status and plasma butyrylcholinesterase activity in chlorpyrifos manufacturing workers. (PMID: 19223938) Albers J.W. … Richardson R.J. (J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2010) 3 23
  4. Paraoxonase 1 protects against protein N-homocysteinylation in humans. (PMID: 19880629) Perla-KajA!n J. … Jakubowski H. (FASEB J. 2010) 3 23
  5. Paraoxonase 1, agricultural organophosphate exposure, and Parkinson disease. (PMID: 19907334) Manthripragada A.D. … Ritz B. (Epidemiology 2010) 3 23

Products for PON1 Gene

Sources for PON1 Gene