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Aliases for GNG2 Gene

Aliases for GNG2 Gene

  • G Protein Subunit Gamma 2 2 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Gamma 2 2 5
  • G Gamma-I 4

External Ids for GNG2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNG2 Gene

  • GC14P049702
  • GC14M046231
  • GC14M050426
  • GC14P050303
  • GC14P051383
  • GC14P052327
  • GC14P032487
  • GC14P052292

Summaries for GNG2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNG2 Gene

  • This gene encodes one of the gamma subunits of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Such proteins are involved in signaling mechanisms across membranes. Various subunits forms heterodimers which then interact with the different signal molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GNG2 Gene

GNG2 (G Protein Subunit Gamma 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GNG2 include Hemiplegic Migraine. Among its related pathways are Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor and Inwardly rectifying K+ channels. GO annotations related to this gene include signal transducer activity and G-protein beta-subunit binding. An important paralog of this gene is GNG12.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG2 Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity).

Tocris Summary for GNG2 Gene

  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. Each G protein contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand binding causes a receptor conformational change, detaching the G protein and switching it 'on'.

Gene Wiki entry for GNG2 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNG2 Gene

Genomics for GNG2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GNG2 Gene

Enhancers for GNG2 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GNG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GNG2 Gene

51,826,195 bp from pter
51,979,342 bp from pter
153,148 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GNG2 Gene

Genes around GNG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNG2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNG2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNG2 Gene

Proteins for GNG2 Gene

  • Protein details for GNG2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5JPE2
    • Q6P9A9

    Protein attributes for GNG2 Gene

    71 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    7850 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma (By similarity). The heterodimer formed by GNB1 and GNG2 interacts with ARHGEF5 (PubMed:19713215).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GNG2 Gene

neXtProt entry for GNG2 Gene

Proteomics data for GNG2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GNG2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 32
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNG2 Gene

Domains & Families for GNG2 Gene

Protein Domains for GNG2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNG2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNG2: view

No data available for Gene Families for GNG2 Gene

Function for GNG2 Gene

Molecular function for GNG2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity).
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNG2: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNG2 Gene

Localization for GNG2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG2 Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GNG2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNG2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 3
golgi apparatus 2
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GNG2 Gene

SuperPathways for GNG2 Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Circadian entrainment
2 Development Angiotensin activation of ERK
3 fMLP Pathway
4 G-protein activation
5 Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNG2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GNG2 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006112 energy reserve metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006457 protein folding TAS --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007191 adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway ISS --
GO:0007223 Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG2: view

Drugs & Compounds for GNG2 Gene

(4) Drugs for GNG2 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Halothane Approved Pharma Activator, Target, other/unknown 1
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(6) Additional Compounds for GNG2 Gene - From: Tocris and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
trifluoroacetic acid
  • Acide trifluoroacetique
  • Kyselina trifluoroctova
  • Perfluoroacetic acid
  • Trifluoracetic acid
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P
Mastoparan X
NF 023

(5) Tocris Compounds for GNG2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P Inhibits M1 ACh receptor activation of Gq/11 89430-38-6
Mastoparan Activates Gi and Go 72093-21-1
Mastoparan X G protein activator peptide 72093-22-2
NF 023 Selective, competitive P2X1 antagonist 104869-31-0
SCH 202676 hydrobromide Inhibitor of ligand binding to G-protein-coupled receptors 265980-25-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNG2: view

Transcripts for GNG2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GNG2 Gene

Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNG2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - -
SP9: -

Relevant External Links for GNG2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GNG2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GNG2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GNG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x10.0) and Testis (x8.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GNG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (11.2), Frontal cortex (10.8), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (7.4), and Fetal Brain (6.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GNG2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNG2 Gene Hs.187772

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNG2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in fetal tissues, including testis, adrenal gland, brain, white blood cells and brain.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNG2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GNG2 Gene

Primer Products

Orthologs for GNG2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GNG2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNG2 35
  • 95.31 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GNG2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GNG2 35
  • 92.02 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GNG2 36
  • 68 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gng2 35
  • 92.49 (n)
  • 100 (a)
Gng2 16
Gng2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNG2 35
  • 100 (n)
  • 100 (a)
GNG2 36
  • 100 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gng2 35
  • 91.55 (n)
  • 98.59 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GNG2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GNG2 35
  • 85.92 (n)
  • 98.59 (a)
GNG2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GNG2 36
  • 99 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gng2 35
  • 85.45 (n)
  • 100 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100332296 35
  • 82.63 (n)
  • 94.37 (a)
gng2 36
  • 94 (a)
gng2 36
  • 94 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GNG2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GNG2 Gene

Gene Tree for GNG2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNG2 (if available)

Paralogs for GNG2 Gene

Paralogs for GNG2 Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for GNG2 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNG2: view

Variants for GNG2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNG2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1272117 -- 51,964,837(+) aagaa(A/C)atttt intron-variant
rs1272118 -- 51,941,463(-) AGATT(G/T)TGTTT intron-variant
rs1316298 -- 51,899,056(+) CTGGA(A/G)TTGAC intron-variant
rs1343737 -- 51,862,142(+) TCTCA(A/T)AATCT intron-variant
rs1343738 -- 51,862,380(+) TTTGC(A/G)TCTTA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNG2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv901947 CNV Gain 21882294
nsv456317 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv826952 CNV Loss 20364138
esv2748712 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2670027 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2672618 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2514556 CNV Deletion 19546169
esv2748713 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2000663 CNV Deletion 18987734
esv2675664 CNV Deletion 23128226
dgv35n6 CNV Loss 16902084
esv1005848 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv2748714 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv7252 OTHER Inversion 18451855
esv2571786 CNV Deletion 19546169

Variation tolerance for GNG2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 54.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.97; 19.93% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Relevant External Links for GNG2 Gene

Disorders for GNG2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GNG2 Gene - From: GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hemiplegic migraine
  • migraine hemiplegic
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GNG2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GNG2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GNG2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNG2 Gene

Publications for GNG2 Gene

  1. Cloning, characterization, and mapping of the gene encoding the human G protein gamma 2 subunit. (PMID: 10833460) Modarressi M.H. … Wolfe J. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2000) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. The sensitivity of G protein-activated K+ channels toward halothane is essentially determined by the C terminus. (PMID: 15175324) Milovic S. … Weigl L.G. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 25 26
  3. Dual effects of hexanol and halothane on the regulation of calcium sensitivity in airway smooth muscle. (PMID: 12657848) Yoshimura H. … Warner D.O. (Anesthesiology 2003) 25 26
  4. Effect of halothane on the guanosine 5' triphosphate binding activity of G-protein alphai subunits. (PMID: 12826849) Streiff J. … Jones K.A. (Anesthesiology 2003) 25 26
  5. Halothane binding to a G protein coupled receptor in retinal membranes by photoaffinity labeling. (PMID: 10913255) Ishizawa Y. … Eckenhoff R.G. (Biochemistry 2000) 25 26

Products for GNG2 Gene

Sources for GNG2 Gene