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Aliases for PLA2G4A Gene

Aliases for PLA2G4A Gene

  • Phospholipase A2 Group IVA 2 3 4 5
  • Phospholipase A2, Group IVA (Cytosolic, Calcium-Dependent) 2 3
  • PLA2G4 3 4
  • CPLA2 3 4
  • Calcium-Dependent Phospholipid-Binding Protein 3
  • Phosphatidylcholine 2-Acylhydrolase 3
  • Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 3
  • Lysophospholipase 3
  • CPLA2-Alpha 3

External Ids for PLA2G4A Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PLA2G4A Gene

  • PLA2G4

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLA2G4A Gene

  • GC01P184323
  • GC01P182226
  • GC01P183317
  • GC01P184037
  • GC01P184013
  • GC01P183529
  • GC01P185064
  • GC01P158032

Summaries for PLA2G4A Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PLA2G4A Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV family. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid which is subsequently metabolized into eicosanoids. Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are lipid-based cellular hormones that regulate hemodynamics, inflammatory responses, and other intracellular pathways. The hydrolysis reaction also produces lysophospholipids that are converted into platelet-activating factor. The enzyme is activated by increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels and phosphorylation, resulting in its translocation from the cytosol and nucleus to perinuclear membrane vesicles. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PLA2G4A Gene

PLA2G4A (Phospholipase A2 Group IVA) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PLA2G4A include Phospholipase A2, Group Iv A, Deficiency Of and Cryptogenic Multifocal Ulcerous Stenosing Enteritis. Among its related pathways are AGE/RAGE pathway and Ovarian steroidogenesis. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and phospholipase A2 activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLA2G4F.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G4A Gene

  • Selectively hydrolyzes arachidonyl phospholipids in the sn-2 position releasing arachidonic acid. Together with its lysophospholipid activity, it is implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory response.

Tocris Summary for PLA2G4A Gene

  • Phospholipases are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic molecules. There are four major classes; phospholipase A, phospholipase B, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase D.

Gene Wiki entry for PLA2G4A Gene

Additional gene information for PLA2G4A Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PLA2G4A Gene

Genomics for PLA2G4A Gene

Regulatory Elements for PLA2G4A Gene

Enhancers for PLA2G4A Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH01H186848 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl 17.6 +20.5 20513 1.8 FOXA2 ZSCAN4 BATF RELA EED FOS RUNX3 IKZF2 CREM NFE2L2 C1orf27 ENSG00000228238 PLA2G4A TPR PTGS2 GC01P187071
GH01H186739 0.6 FANTOM5 10.8 -89.9 -89913 0.6 JUNB RUNX3 BATF CREM SPI1 PTGS2 PLA2G4A PACERR C1orf27
GH01H186819 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 4.8 -9.4 -9400 1 FOS RUNX3 BATF SPI1 PTGS2 PLA2G4A PACERR
GH01H186978 1 FANTOM5 Ensembl 3.5 +150.0 149963 0.7 POLR2A ZNF547 IKZF1 MAFG EBF1 IKZF2 SPI1 RELA PTGS2 PLA2G4A GC01P187071
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PLA2G4A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PLA2G4A Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000017284 700 2001 TBP ZSCAN4 SIN3A FEZF1 RFX5 GTF3C2 ZSCAN5C RUNX3 SP3 ZNF362

Genomic Locations for PLA2G4A Gene

Genomic Locations for PLA2G4A Gene
160,082 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PLA2G4A Gene

Genes around PLA2G4A on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PLA2G4A Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PLA2G4A Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PLA2G4A Gene

Proteins for PLA2G4A Gene

  • Protein details for PLA2G4A Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Cytosolic phospholipase A2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B1AKG4
    • Q29R80

    Protein attributes for PLA2G4A Gene

    749 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    85239 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with KAT5.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PLA2G4A Gene

neXtProt entry for PLA2G4A Gene

Post-translational modifications for PLA2G4A Gene

Other Protein References for PLA2G4A Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PLA2G4A Gene

Domains & Families for PLA2G4A Gene

Gene Families for PLA2G4A Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PLA2G4A Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • The N-terminal C2 domain associates with lipid membranes upon calcium binding. It modulates enzyme activity by presenting the active site to its substrate in response to elevations of cytosolic Ca(2+).
  • The N-terminal C2 domain associates with lipid membranes upon calcium binding. It modulates enzyme activity by presenting the active site to its substrate in response to elevations of cytosolic Ca(2+).
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PLA2G4A: view

Function for PLA2G4A Gene

Molecular function for PLA2G4A Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
phospholipase A2,group IV,Ca2+ dependent,cytosolic,releasing arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids,initiating the biosynthesis of prostaglandins,leukotrienes and platelet-activating factor
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: Vmax=2.7 umol/min/mg enzyme for the phospholipase A2 reaction {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8083230}; Vmax=4.6 umol/min/mg enzyme for the lysophosphatase reaction {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8083230};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Phosphatidylcholine + H(2)O = 1-acylglycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2-lysophosphatidylcholine + H(2)O = glycerophosphocholine + a carboxylate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Stimulated by agonists such as ATP, EGF, thrombin and bradykinin as well as by cytosolic Ca(2+).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Selectively hydrolyzes arachidonyl phospholipids in the sn-2 position releasing arachidonic acid. Together with its lysophospholipid activity, it is implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory response.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PLA2G4A Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PLA2G4A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004622 lysophospholipase activity TAS --
GO:0004623 phospholipase A2 activity TAS --
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IDA 9430701
GO:0005544 calcium-dependent phospholipid binding IDA 9665851
GO:0008970 phosphatidylcholine 1-acylhydrolase activity TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G4A: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PLA2G4A: view

Animal Models for PLA2G4A Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PLA2G4A:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PLA2G4A Gene

Localization for PLA2G4A Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G4A Gene

Cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic vesicle. Note=Translocates to membrane vesicles in a calcium-dependent fashion.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PLA2G4A gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 3
golgi apparatus 3
plasma membrane 2
extracellular 2
cytoskeleton 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PLA2G4A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA --
GO:0005789 endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G4A: view

Pathways & Interactions for PLA2G4A Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PLA2G4A: view

Pathways by source for PLA2G4A Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for PLA2G4A Gene

Is activated by:
Other effect:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PLA2G4A Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006644 phospholipid metabolic process TAS --
GO:0006654 phosphatidic acid biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0006663 platelet activating factor biosynthetic process NAS 9430701
GO:0006690 icosanoid metabolic process NAS 9430701
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLA2G4A: view

Drugs & Compounds for PLA2G4A Gene

(93) Drugs for PLA2G4A Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Fluticasone propionate Approved Pharma antagonist, Target, inhibitor 0
Fluocinolone Acetonide Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma binder, Enzyme, inhibitor 42
Quinacrine Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 6
Carbachol Approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, Enzyme, inducer 3
Carbenicillin Approved Pharma Enzyme, inhibitor 1

(104) Additional Compounds for PLA2G4A Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Arachidic acid
  • Arachate
  • Arachic acid
  • Arachidate
  • Arachidic acid
  • Eicosanoate
  • 2-Aminoethyl ester 1-Glycerophosphoric acid
  • a-Glycerophosphorylethanolamine
  • alpha-Glycerophosphorylethanolamine
  • Glycerol 3-phosphoethanolamine
  • Glycerol 3-phosphorylethanolamine
Heptadecanoic acid
  • Heptadecanoate
  • Heptadecanoic acid
  • Margarate
  • Margaric acid
  • Margarinate
Heptadecanoyl CoA
  • Heptadecanoate
  • Heptadecanoic acid
  • Heptadecanoic acid coa
  • Heptadecanoyl coenzyme A
  • Heptadecanoyl-coA
  • 1-Hydroxy-2-Octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • 1-Hydroxy-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • Lysophosphatidylcholine
  • Stearoyl lysophosphatidylcholine

(5) Tocris Compounds for PLA2G4A Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AACOCF3 Phospholipase A2 inhibitor 149301-79-1
Edelfosine Selective PI-PLC inhibitor, also PAF receptor agonist 77286-66-9
m-3M3FBS Phospholipase C activator 200933-14-8
o-3M3FBS Inactive analog of m-3M3FBS (Cat. No. 1941) 313981-55-4
U 73122 Phospholipase C inhibitor 112648-68-7

(6) ApexBio Compounds for PLA2G4A Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AACOCF3 Inhibitor of cPLA2/anandamide hydrolysis/FAAH 149301-79-1
CAY10650 cPLA2α inhibitor,highly potent 1233706-88-1
Clofazimine Tuberculosis drug 2030-63-9
CP-91149 Selective inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase 186392-40-5
PACOCF3 CPLA2 and iPLA2 inhibitor 141022-99-3
Varespladib (LY315920) HnsPLA inhibitor,potent and selective 172732-68-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PLA2G4A: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for PLA2G4A Gene

Unigene Clusters for PLA2G4A Gene

Phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLA2G4A Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PLA2G4A Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PLA2G4A Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PLA2G4A Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PLA2G4A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bladder (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PLA2G4A Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (16.3) and Uterus (8.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PLA2G4A Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PLA2G4A Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PLA2G4A Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PLA2G4A Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PLA2G4A Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in various tissues such as macrophages, platelets, neutrophils, fibroblasts and lung endothelium.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PLA2G4A Gene

  • Blood(4.5)
  • Lung(2.1)
  • Nervous system(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PLA2G4A Gene

Germ Layers:
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • small intestine
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • red blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PLA2G4A: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for PLA2G4A Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PLA2G4A Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PLA2G4A 34 33
  • 99.69 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PLA2G4A 33 34
  • 91.32 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PLA2G4A 34
  • 91 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PLA2G4A 33 34
  • 90.61 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PLA2G4A 34
  • 90 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pla2g4a 33
  • 89.1 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pla2g4a 33 16 34
  • 88.16 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PLA2G4A 34 33
  • 77.09 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PLA2G4A 34
  • 81 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pla2g4a 33
  • 74.5 (n)
Str.20412 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia pla2g4a-prov 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pla2g4a 34
  • 70 (a)
cpla2 34 33
  • 67.99 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.2704 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.6135 34
  • 47 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.2601 33
Species where no ortholog for PLA2G4A was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PLA2G4A Gene

Gene Tree for PLA2G4A (if available)
Gene Tree for PLA2G4A (if available)

Paralogs for PLA2G4A Gene

Paralogs for PLA2G4A Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for PLA2G4A Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PLA2G4A: view

Variants for PLA2G4A Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PLA2G4A Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_035826 A breast cancer sample
rs121434634 Pathogenic 186,894,164(+) TATCT(C/T)CTATG reference, missense
rs121434635 Pathogenic 186,956,219(+) AGGAC(A/G)TGCTG reference, missense
rs1000032699 -- 186,933,864(+) TTCTG(A/G)GTTCT intron-variant
rs1000038276 -- 186,940,819(+) TAGAG(C/G)CAACT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PLA2G4A Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv548407 CNV loss 21841781
nsv548406 CNV loss 21841781
nsv466272 CNV loss 19166990
nsv3877 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv1079016 OTHER inversion 25765185
esv3543755 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3339194 CNV insertion 20981092
esv2762854 CNV gain 21179565
esv2720350 CNV deletion 23290073
esv1093925 CNV insertion 17803354
esv1010484 CNV insertion 20482838

Variation tolerance for PLA2G4A Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 51.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.90; 35.39% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PLA2G4A Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLA2G4A Gene

Disorders for PLA2G4A Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for PLA2G4A Gene - From: HGMD, ClinVar, GeneTests, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
phospholipase a2, group iv a, deficiency of
cryptogenic multifocal ulcerous stenosing enteritis
  • cmuse
cytosolic phospholipase-a2 alpha deficiency associated bleeding disorder
  • pla2g4a-related platelet dysfunction
krabbe disease
  • beta galactocerebrosidase deficiency
mood disorder
  • episodic mood disorder
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards


  • Note=PLA2G4A mutations resulting in phospholipase A2 deficiency have been found in a patient affected by recurrent episodes of multiple complicated ulcers of the small intestine, not due to cyclooxygenase inhibitors use. Disease features also include platelet dysfunction, and globally decreased eicosanoid synthesis (PubMed:18451993). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:18451993}.

Relevant External Links for PLA2G4A

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PLA2G4A: view

No data available for Genatlas for PLA2G4A Gene

Publications for PLA2G4A Gene

  1. Crystal structure of a calcium-phospholipid binding domain from cytosolic phospholipase A2. (PMID: 9430701) Perisic O … Williams RL (The Journal of biological chemistry 1998) 3 4 22 60
  2. Identification of the phosphorylation sites of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in agonist-stimulated human platelets and HeLa cells. (PMID: 9468497) Börsch-Haubold AG … Gelb MH (The Journal of biological chemistry 1998) 3 4 22 60
  3. Solution structure and membrane interactions of the C2 domain of cytosolic phospholipase A2. (PMID: 9665851) Xu GY … Cumming DA (Journal of molecular biology 1998) 3 4 22 60
  4. Identification of essential residues for the catalytic function of 85-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2. Probing the role of histidine, aspartic acid, cysteine, and arginine. (PMID: 8702602) Pickard RT … Sharp JD (The Journal of biological chemistry 1996) 3 4 22 60
  5. Serine 228 is essential for catalytic activities of 85-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2. (PMID: 8083230) Sharp JD … Brems DN (The Journal of biological chemistry 1994) 3 4 22 60

Products for PLA2G4A Gene

Sources for PLA2G4A Gene

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