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Aliases for PGF Gene

Aliases for PGF Gene

  • Placental Growth Factor 2 3
  • PLGF 3 4 6
  • Placental Growth Factor, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Related Protein 2 3
  • Placenta Growth Factor 2 3
  • PGFL 3 4
  • Placental Growth Factor-Like 2
  • SHGC-10760 3
  • D12S1900 3
  • PlGF-2 3

External Ids for PGF Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PGF Gene

  • PGFL

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PGF Gene

  • GC14M072935
  • GC14M069225
  • GC14M073398
  • GC14M074478
  • GC14M075408
  • GC14M055576

Summaries for PGF Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PGF Gene

  • This gene encodes a growth factor found in placenta which is homologous to vascular endothelial growth factor. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PGF Gene

PGF (Placental Growth Factor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PGF include twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. Among its related pathways are PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Ras signaling pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and growth factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is VEGFA.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGF Gene

  • Growth factor active in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and migration. It binds to the receptor FLT1/VEGFR-1. Isoform PlGF-2 binds NRP1/neuropilin-1 and NRP2/neuropilin-2 in a heparin-dependent manner. Also promotes cell tumor growth.

Gene Wiki entry for PGF Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PGF Gene

Genomics for PGF Gene

Regulatory Elements for PGF Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for PGF Gene

74,941,830 bp from pter
74,955,784 bp from pter
13,955 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PGF Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for PGF Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PGF Gene

Proteins for PGF Gene

  • Protein details for PGF Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Placenta growth factor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q07101
    • Q9BV78
    • Q9Y6S8

    Protein attributes for PGF Gene

    221 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    24789 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Antiparallel homodimer; disulfide-linked. Also found as heterodimer with VEGFA/VEGF. Isoform PlGF-3 is found both as homodimer and as monomer

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PGF Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PGF Gene


neXtProt entry for PGF Gene

Proteomics data for PGF Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for PGF Gene

Other Protein References for PGF Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

Protein Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PGF Gene

Domains for PGF Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PGF Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P49763
  • Isoform PlGF-2 contains a basic insert which acts as a cell retention signal
  • Belongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PGF: view

No data available for Gene Families for PGF Gene

Function for PGF Gene

Molecular function for PGF Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: placenta growth factor,angiogenic,vascular endothelial growth factor related
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Growth factor active in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and migration. It binds to the receptor FLT1/VEGFR-1. Isoform PlGF-2 binds NRP1/neuropilin-1 and NRP2/neuropilin-2 in a heparin-dependent manner. Also promotes cell tumor growth.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PGF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 14684734
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IMP 21215706
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IEA --
GO:0046982 protein heterodimerization activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGF: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PGF: view

Animal Models for PGF Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PGF:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for PGF Gene

Localization for PGF Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGF Gene

Secreted. Note=The three isoforms are secreted but PlGF-2 appears to remain cell attached unless released by heparin.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for PGF Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PGF gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1
cytosol 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PGF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGF: view

Pathways for PGF Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PGF: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PGF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001658 branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis IEA --
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0001938 positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IEA --
GO:0002040 sprouting angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 9467961
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGF: view

Compounds for PGF Gene

(1) Drugbank Compounds for PGF Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
  • AVE 0005
862111-32-8 target binder

(21) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for PGF Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
vegf 89.6 293
tyrosine 69.7 86
sunitinib 41 3
matrigel 23.1 1
pd 98,059 22.2 3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PGF: view

Transcripts for PGF Gene

Unigene Clusters for PGF Gene

Placental growth factor:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for PGF

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PGF Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7
SP1: -
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for PGF Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PGF Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for PGF Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PGF Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Artery - Tibial (4.8) and Thyroid (4.5).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PGF Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PGF Gene Hs.252820

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PGF Gene

Tissue specificity: While the three isoforms are present in most placental tissues, PlGF-2 is specific to early (8 week) placenta and only PlGF-1 is found in the colon and mammary carcinomas
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with PGF: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for PGF Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PGF Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PGF 35
  • 98.24 (n)
  • 98.24 (a)
PGF 36
  • 64 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PGF 35
  • 82.98 (n)
  • 76.6 (a)
PGF 36
  • 71 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PGF 35
  • 87.94 (n)
  • 85.11 (a)
PGF 36
  • 62 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pgf 35
  • 73.28 (n)
  • 68.38 (a)
Pgf 16
Pgf 36
  • 57 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PGF 36
  • 78 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PGF 36
  • 52 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pgf 35
  • 73.77 (n)
  • 66.18 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PGF 35
  • 71.58 (n)
  • 58.91 (a)
PGF 36
  • 51 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PGF 36
  • 48 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii CABZ01077555.1 36
  • 45 (a)
LOC557468 35
  • 63.91 (n)
  • 57.85 (a)
PGF (1 of 2) 36
  • 45 (a)
Species with no ortholog for PGF:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PGF Gene

Gene Tree for PGF (if available)
Gene Tree for PGF (if available)

Paralogs for PGF Gene

Paralogs for PGF Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for PGF Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PGF: view

Variants for PGF Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PGF Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs8185 -- 74,942,086(-) CGGCC(A/G)AGGTG utr-variant-3-prime
rs12411 -- 74,942,340(+) GCTTG(A/T)CTGTG utr-variant-3-prime
rs741095 -- 74,957,320(+) TGTGC(A/G)CGTGT upstream-variant-2KB
rs759059 -- 74,948,114(+) GCTTG(C/G)CCCAG intron-variant
rs1009910 -- 74,945,395(+) GATGA(A/G)AGCAT intron-variant

Relevant External Links for PGF Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PGF Gene

Disorders for PGF Gene

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for PGF Gene

(48) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for PGF Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
preeclampsia 86.7 187
neovascularization 70.1 20
intrauterine growth retardation 62.2 4
pregnancy complications 56.4 2
proteinuria 50.1 7

Relevant External Links for PGF

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PGF: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGF Gene

Publications for PGF Gene

  1. Two alternative mRNAs coding for the angiogenic factor, placenta growth factor (PlGF), are transcribed from a single gene of chromosome 14. (PMID: 7681160) Maglione D. … Persico M.G. (Oncogene 1993) 2 3 4 23
  2. A heparin-binding form of placenta growth factor (PlGF-2) is expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in placenta. (PMID: 8148155) Hauser S.D. … Weich H.A. (Growth Factors 1993) 3 4 23
  3. Isolation of a human placenta cDNA coding for a protein related to the vascular permeability factor. (PMID: 1924389) Maglione D. … Persico M.G. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1991) 3 4 23
  4. A critical role of placental growth factor in the induction of inflammation and edema formation. (PMID: 12393422) Oura H. … Detmar M. (Blood 2003) 3 23
  5. Angiogenic growth factors in human dentine matrix. (PMID: 11000388) Roberts-Clark D.J. … Smith A.J. (Arch. Oral Biol. 2000) 3 23

Products for PGF Gene

Sources for PGF Gene

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