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Aliases for PGF Gene

Aliases for PGF Gene

  • Placental Growth Factor 2 3 5
  • Placental Growth Factor, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Related Protein 2 3
  • Placenta Growth Factor 2 3
  • PGFL 3 4
  • PLGF 3 4
  • Placental Growth Factor-Like 2
  • SHGC-10760 3
  • D12S1900 3
  • PlGF-2 3
  • PIGF 3

External Ids for PGF Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PGF Gene

  • PGFL

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PGF Gene

  • GC14M072935
  • GC14M069225
  • GC14M073398
  • GC14M074478
  • GC14M075408
  • GC14M055576

Summaries for PGF Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PGF Gene

  • This gene encodes a growth factor found in placenta which is homologous to vascular endothelial growth factor. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PGF Gene

PGF (Placental Growth Factor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PGF include Placental Insufficiency and Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome. Among its related pathways are p70S6K Signaling and Focal Adhesion. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and growth factor activity. An important paralog of this gene is VEGFA.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGF Gene

  • Growth factor active in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and migration. It binds to the receptor FLT1/VEGFR-1. Isoform PlGF-2 binds NRP1/neuropilin-1 and NRP2/neuropilin-2 in a heparin-dependent manner. Also promotes cell tumor growth.

Gene Wiki entry for PGF Gene

Additional gene information for PGF Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PGF Gene

Genomics for PGF Gene

Regulatory Elements for PGF Gene

Enhancers for PGF Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH14H074880 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE 15.6 +71.6 71621 6.5 PKNOX1 MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B YY1 ZNF143 ZNF207 DLST RPS6KL1 ZNF410 NEK9 YLPM1 PGF TTLL5 ENSG00000258559 FCF1 MLH3
GH14H074977 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.1 -25.8 -25832 8.3 FOXA2 RAD21 RFX5 FOS RCOR1 EGR2 REST NR2F2 ZNF341 GLIS1 EIF2B2 ACYP1 PGF MLH3 ZC2HC1C RPS6KL1 PROX2 RNU6-689P DLST
GH14H074986 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.1 -32.2 -32205 2.6 PKNOX1 JUN MAX BMI1 CTBP1 GATA3 SCRT2 FOS THAP11 SCRT1 EIF2B2 PGF MLH3 ZC2HC1C RNU6-689P ACYP1 RPS6KL1 DLST
GH14H074915 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 16.2 +38.8 38801 3.1 NFIC LCORL POLR2A ZNF544 NFIB DLST RPS6KL1 PGF PROX2 ENSG00000258646 EIF2B2 ZC2HC1C ACYP1 MLH3 RNU6-689P
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around PGF on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for PGF Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000070823 384 1201 TBP RARA GLIS2 ZNF391 SP3 SP5 MXD4 TSHZ1 ZNF398 ZNF645

Genomic Locations for PGF Gene

Genomic Locations for PGF Gene
13,955 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PGF Gene

Genes around PGF on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PGF Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PGF Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PGF Gene

Proteins for PGF Gene

  • Protein details for PGF Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Placenta growth factor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q07101
    • Q9BV78
    • Q9Y6S8

    Protein attributes for PGF Gene

    221 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    24789 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Antiparallel homodimer; disulfide-linked. Also found as heterodimer with VEGFA/VEGF. Isoform PlGF-3 is found both as homodimer and as monomer.
    • Sequence=AAB25832.2; Type=Erroneous translation; Note=Wrong choice of frame.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PGF Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PGF Gene


neXtProt entry for PGF Gene

Post-translational modifications for PGF Gene

Other Protein References for PGF Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PGF Gene

Domains & Families for PGF Gene

Gene Families for PGF Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PGF Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Isoform PlGF-2 contains a basic insert which acts as a cell retention signal.
  • Belongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family.
  • Isoform PlGF-2 contains a basic insert which acts as a cell retention signal.
  • Belongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PGF: view

Function for PGF Gene

Molecular function for PGF Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
placenta growth factor,angiogenic,vascular endothelial growth factor related
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Growth factor active in angiogenesis and endothelial cell growth, stimulating their proliferation and migration. It binds to the receptor FLT1/VEGFR-1. Isoform PlGF-2 binds NRP1/neuropilin-1 and NRP2/neuropilin-2 in a heparin-dependent manner. Also promotes cell tumor growth.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PGF Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PGF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005172 vascular endothelial growth factor receptor binding IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 14684734
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IMP,TAS 21215706
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA --
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGF: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PGF: view

Animal Models for PGF Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PGF:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PGF Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PGF

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PGF Gene

Localization for PGF Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGF Gene

Secreted. Note=The three isoforms are secreted but PlGF-2 appears to remain cell attached unless released by heparin.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PGF gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Mitochondria (2)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PGF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGF: view

Pathways & Interactions for PGF Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PGF: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PGF Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IBA --
GO:0001658 branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis IEA --
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IBA --
GO:0001938 positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IBA --
GO:0002040 sprouting angiogenesis IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGF: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PGF Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PGF Gene

(14) Drugs for PGF Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Aflibercept Approved Pharma Target, binder Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 0
Zaltrap Approved August 2012 Pharma 0
TB-403 Pharma 0

(10) Additional Compounds for PGF Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PGF: view

Transcripts for PGF Gene

Unigene Clusters for PGF Gene

Placental growth factor:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PGF Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7
SP1: -
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for PGF Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PGF Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PGF Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PGF Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Artery - Tibial (x4.8) and Thyroid (x4.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PGF Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Placenta (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for PGF Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PGF Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PGF Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PGF Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PGF Gene:

Tissue specificity: While the three isoforms are present in most placental tissues, PlGF-2 is specific to early (8 week) placenta and only PlGF-1 is found in the colon and mammary carcinomas.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PGF Gene

  • Muscle(4.5)
  • Blood(2.9)
  • Heart(2.8)
  • Nervous system(2.5)
  • Lung(2.2)
  • Stomach(2.1)
  • Intestine(2)
  • Kidney(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PGF: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PGF Gene

Orthologs for PGF Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PGF Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PGF 33 34
  • 98.24 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PGF 33 34
  • 87.94 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PGF 33 34
  • 82.98 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PGF 34
  • 78 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pgf 33
  • 73.77 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pgf 33 16 34
  • 73.28 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PGF 34
  • 52 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PGF 33 34
  • 71.58 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PGF 34
  • 48 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC557468 33
  • 63.91 (n)
CABZ01077555.1 34
  • 45 (a)
PGF (1 of 2) 34
  • 45 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PGF was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PGF Gene

Gene Tree for PGF (if available)
Gene Tree for PGF (if available)

Paralogs for PGF Gene

Paralogs for PGF Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for PGF Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PGF: view

Variants for PGF Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PGF Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000086247 -- 74,943,547(+) AGTAA(C/T)TGAGT intron-variant, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000195446 -- 74,950,851(+) CTGAT(-/G)GGTCA intron-variant
rs1000200855 -- 74,950,606(+) TGGCC(A/G)GAGTC intron-variant, downstream-variant-500B
rs1000209830 -- 74,951,336(+) AAAGT(G/T)CAGGG intron-variant
rs1000255903 -- 74,948,083(+) AGCCC(C/T)GTTTG intron-variant, nc-transcript-variant

Variation tolerance for PGF Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 38.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.42; 9.28% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for PGF Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PGF Gene

Disorders for PGF Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(31) MalaCards diseases for PGF Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
placental insufficiency
  • uteroplacental vascular insufficiency
twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome
  • twin twin transfusion syndrome
placenta disease
  • placenta disorder
neovascular glaucoma
  • secondary angle-closure glaucoma with rubeosis
placenta accreta
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PGF in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for PGF

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PGF: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PGF Gene

Publications for PGF Gene

  1. Evidence of a novel isoform of placenta growth factor (PlGF-4) expressed in human trophoblast and endothelial cells. (PMID: 14568677) Yang W … Torry DS (Journal of reproductive immunology 2003) 3 4 22 60
  2. Two alternative mRNAs coding for the angiogenic factor, placenta growth factor (PlGF), are transcribed from a single gene of chromosome 14. (PMID: 7681160) Maglione D … Persico MG (Oncogene 1993) 2 3 4 60
  3. A heparin-binding form of placenta growth factor (PlGF-2) is expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in placenta. (PMID: 8148155) Hauser S … Weich HA (Growth factors (Chur, Switzerland) 1993) 3 4 22 60
  4. Isolation of a human placenta cDNA coding for a protein related to the vascular permeability factor. (PMID: 1924389) Maglione D … Persico MG (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991) 3 4 22 60
  5. HRG inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by inducing macrophage polarization and vessel normalization through downregulation of PlGF. (PMID: 21215706) Rolny C … Carmeliet P (Cancer cell 2011) 3 4 60

Products for PGF Gene

Sources for PGF Gene

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