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Aliases for LARS Gene

Aliases for LARS Gene

  • Leucyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • Leucine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • EC 4 58
  • LEURS 3 4
  • Cytoplasmic Leucyl-TRNA Synthetase 3
  • Leucine--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Cytosolic Leucyl-TRNA Synthetase 3
  • Proliferation-Inducing Gene 44 3
  • Leucine Translase 3
  • KIAA1352 4
  • EC 6.1.1 58
  • HSPC192 3
  • Hr025Cl 3
  • ILFS1 3
  • LARS1 3
  • PIG44 3
  • RNTLS 3
  • LEUS 3
  • LFIS 3
  • LRS 3

External Ids for LARS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LARS Gene

  • GC05M145468
  • GC05M146077
  • GC05M145521
  • GC05M145473
  • GC05M140639

Summaries for LARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LARS Gene

  • This gene encodes a cytosolic leucine-tRNA synthetase, a member of the class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of L-leucine to tRNA(Leu). It is found in the cytoplasm as part of a multisynthetase complex and interacts with the arginine tRNA synthetase through its C-terminal domain. A mutation in this gene was found in affected individuals with infantile liver failure syndrome 1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]

GeneCards Summary for LARS Gene

LARS (Leucyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LARS include Infantile Liver Failure Syndrome 1 and Conjugate Gaze Palsy. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and tRNA Aminoacylation. GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and aminoacyl-tRNA editing activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LARS Gene

  • Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a two step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. Exhibits a post-transfer editing activity to hydrolyze mischarged tRNAs.

Gene Wiki entry for LARS Gene

Additional gene information for LARS Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LARS Gene

Genomics for LARS Gene

Regulatory Elements for LARS Gene

Enhancers for LARS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH05H146181 1.2 ENCODE 48.8 +0.4 355 2.5 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 LARS RBM27 ENSG00000271724 ENSG00000250025 PPP2R2B-IT1 TCERG1 GC05M146120
GH05H146202 1.1 ENCODE 44.5 -20.8 -20824 2.7 PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF766 ZNF207 LARS RBM27 ENSG00000275740 GC05P146208
GH05H146137 0.9 ENCODE 36.7 +44.5 44527 1.4 ELF3 FOXA2 ARID4B RARA SCRT2 ATF7 CREM MIXL1 THAP11 PAF1 LARS PLAC8L1 RPL35AP17 RPL35AP16
GH05H146173 0.7 ENCODE 36.6 +9.1 9067 0.6 PAF1 PKNOX1 TBL1XR1 TRIM22 ZNF217 IKZF1 ETV6 ATF7 IKZF2 RUNX3 LARS PLAC8L1 GC05M146120
GH05H145974 1.8 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.8 +203.5 203543 9.2 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B FEZF1 ZNF2 YY1 ZNF143 FOS TCERG1 RBM27 SH3RF2 LARS GRXCR2 GC05P145976 LOC100431175
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around LARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for LARS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

Genomic Locations for LARS Gene

Genomic Locations for LARS Gene
69,762 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for LARS Gene

Genes around LARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LARS Gene

Proteins for LARS Gene

  • Protein details for LARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Leucine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A2RRR4
    • A7E266
    • B4DJ10
    • Q2TU79
    • Q9NSE1

    Protein attributes for LARS Gene

    1176 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    134466 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAA92590.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LARS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for LARS Gene


neXtProt entry for LARS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for LARS Gene


Post-translational modifications for LARS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=39, posLast=4545, isoforms=2155, posLast=193193, isoforms=2278, posLast=341341, posLast=659659, posLast=716716, posLast=719719, isoforms=2, 3733, posLast=814814, and isoforms=2, 3832
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for LARS Gene

Domains & Families for LARS Gene

Gene Families for LARS Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LARS: view

Function for LARS Gene

Molecular function for LARS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
leucyl-tRNA synthetase
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-leucine + tRNA(Leu) = AMP + diphosphate + L-leucyl-tRNA(Leu).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
5-fluoro-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-1,2-benzoxaborole inhibits LARS by forming a covalent adduct with the 3 adenosine of tRNA(Leu) at the editing site, thus locking the enzyme in an inactive conformation.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a two step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. Exhibits a post-transfer editing activity to hydrolyze mischarged tRNAs.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LARS Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002161 aminoacyl-tRNA editing activity IEA --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004819 glutamine-tRNA ligase activity IDA 26869582
GO:0004823 leucine-tRNA ligase activity TAS,IBA --
GO:0004832 valine-tRNA ligase activity IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LARS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for LARS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for LARS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LARS:
  • Lars tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for LARS

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LARS Gene

Localization for LARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LARS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LARS gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
lysosome 4
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 2
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1
golgi apparatus 1
endosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (3)
  • Nuclear bodies (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 22424946
GO:0005764 lysosome IMP 22424946
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA 22424946
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0012505 endomembrane system IDA 22424946
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LARS: view

Pathways & Interactions for LARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LARS: view

Pathways by source for LARS Gene

1 KEGG pathway for LARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation TAS --
GO:0006425 glutaminyl-tRNA aminoacylation IDA 26869582
GO:0006429 leucyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA --
GO:0006438 valyl-tRNA aminoacylation IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LARS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LARS Gene

(5) Drugs for LARS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Leucine Approved Nutra Target 0
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved Nutra 0
ATP Nutra Agonist 0

(6) Additional Compounds for LARS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Ceramide (d18:1/16:0)
  • (2S,3R,4E)-2-acylamino-1,3-octadec-4-enediol
  • (2S,3R,4E)-2-acylaminooctadec-4-ene-1,3-diol
  • Cer
  • Ceramide
  • N-Acylsphingosine
  • (4-)Diphosphoric acid ion
  • (P2O74-)Diphosphate
  • Diphosphate
  • Diphosphoric acid
  • PPi
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LARS: view

Transcripts for LARS Gene

Unigene Clusters for LARS Gene

Leucyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for LARS

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LARS Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21a · 21b ^ 22 ^ 23a · 23b ^
SP1: - - -
SP3: -
SP5: -
SP8: -

ExUns: 24 ^ 25 ^ 26 ^ 27a · 27b ^ 28a · 28b ^ 29 ^ 30 ^ 31 ^ 32 ^ 33 ^ 34 ^ 35
SP1: - -
SP4: -
SP6: - -

Relevant External Links for LARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LARS Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (8.4) and Lymph node (7.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for LARS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LARS Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LARS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LARS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LARS Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Liver(4.7)
  • Heart(3.2)
  • Intestine(3.1)
  • Skin(2.8)
  • Blood(2.7)
  • Eye(2.7)
  • Lung(2.7)
  • Muscle(2.5)
  • Lymph node(2.3)
  • Kidney(2.2)
  • Spleen(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LARS Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • head
  • skull
  • liver
  • blood
  • coagulation system
  • red blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LARS: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LARS Gene

Orthologs for LARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for LARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LARS 33 34
  • 99.35 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LARS 33 34
  • 92.38 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LARS 33 34
  • 91.01 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Lars 33
  • 86.9 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Lars 33 16 34
  • 85.97 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LARS 34
  • 85 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LARS 34
  • 84 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LARS 33 34
  • 79.11 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LARS 34
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia lars 33
  • 75.88 (n)
Str.5585 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii larsa 34 34
  • 79 (a)
larsb 33 34
  • 71.02 (n)
wufb36b12 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG33123 33 34
  • 59.98 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008297 33
  • 58.48 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea lars-1 33 34
  • 59.57 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAL088W 33
  • 54.2 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D06105g 33
  • 53.83 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CDC60 33 34 36
  • 53.43 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT1G09620 33
  • 56.22 (n)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.978 33
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os09g0503400 33
  • 57.78 (n)
Os.24539 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6307 33
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.7517 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.12595 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.9718 34
  • 63 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes lrs1 33
  • 56.88 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU09463 33
  • 51.34 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.11019 33
Species where no ortholog for LARS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for LARS Gene

Gene Tree for LARS (if available)
Gene Tree for LARS (if available)

Paralogs for LARS Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for LARS Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LARS: view

No data available for Paralogs for LARS Gene

Variants for LARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs201861847 Pathogenic, Infantile liver failure syndrome 1 (ILFS1) [MIM:615438] 146,153,928(+) GAACA(C/T)AGATC reference, missense
rs863224047 Pathogenic 146,172,759(-) CAAGT(-/ATTTT)GTAAC reference, frameshift-variant, utr-variant-5-prime
rs863224048 Pathogenic 146,177,587(-) GAGAG(-/AG)TGTTT intron-variant, reference, frameshift-variant, utr-variant-5-prime
rs34823161 Likely benign 146,124,001(-) AGTCT(A/G)TCTGA reference, missense
rs368776216 Likely benign 146,142,948(+) AGAGA(C/T)GCGAA reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv969002 CNV duplication 23825009
nsv428128 CNV loss 18775914
nsv1153535 CNV duplication 26484159
nsv1137533 CNV deletion 24896259
esv1264154 CNV insertion 17803354

Variation tolerance for LARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 24.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 11.85; 93.47% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for LARS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LARS Gene

Disorders for LARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(9) MalaCards diseases for LARS Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
infantile liver failure syndrome 1
  • acute infantile liver failure-multisystemic involvement syndrome
conjugate gaze palsy
  • palsy of conjugate gaze
osmotic diarrhea
hiatus hernia
  • diaphragmatic - hiatus -hernia
retinitis pigmentosa 66
  • rp66
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Infantile liver failure syndrome 1 (ILFS1) [MIM:615438]: A life-threatening disorder of hepatic function that manifests with acute liver failure in the first few months of life. Clinical features include anemia, renal tubulopathy, developmental delay, seizures, failure to thrive, and liver steatosis and fibrosis. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22607940}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for LARS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LARS: view

No data available for Genatlas for LARS Gene

Publications for LARS Gene

  1. Crystal structures of the human and fungal cytosolic Leucyl-tRNA synthetase editing domains: A structural basis for the rational design of antifungal benzoxaboroles. (PMID: 19426743) Seiradake E … Cusack S (Journal of molecular biology 2009) 3 4 22 60
  2. Identification of a mutation in LARS as a novel cause of infantile hepatopathy. (PMID: 22607940) Casey JP … Ennis S (Molecular genetics and metabolism 2012) 3 4 60
  3. A paradigm shift for the amino acid editing mechanism of human cytoplasmic leucyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 19702327) Pang YL … Martinis SA (Biochemistry 2009) 3 22 60
  4. Implication of leucyl-tRNA synthetase 1 (LARS1) over-expression in growth and migration of lung cancer cells detected by siRNA targeted knock-down analysis. (PMID: 18446061) Shin SH … Chung YJ (Experimental & molecular medicine 2008) 3 22 60
  5. A single residue in leucyl-tRNA synthetase affecting amino acid specificity and tRNA aminoacylation. (PMID: 17378584) Lue SW … Kelley SO (Biochemistry 2007) 3 22 60

Products for LARS Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for LARS

Sources for LARS Gene

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