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Aliases for GMNN Gene

Aliases for GMNN Gene

  • Geminin, DNA Replication Inhibitor 2 3 5
  • MGORS6 3
  • Gem 3

External Ids for GMNN Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GMNN Gene

  • GC06P024832
  • GC06P024883
  • GC06P024778
  • GC06P024725

Summaries for GMNN Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GMNN Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein that plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein inhibits DNA replication by binding to DNA replication factor Cdt1, preventing the incorporation of minichromosome maintenance proteins into the pre-replication complex. The encoded protein is expressed during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle and is degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex during the metaphase-anaphase transition. Increased expression of this gene may play a role in several malignancies including colon, rectal and breast cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and two pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosome 16. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GMNN Gene

GMNN (Geminin, DNA Replication Inhibitor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GMNN include meier-gorlin syndrome 1 and melanoacanthoma. Among its related pathways are Cell Cycle, Mitotic and Cell cycle_Role of APC in cell cycle regulation. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription corepressor activity and repressing transcription factor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GMNN Gene

  • Inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex (pre-RC). It is degraded during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Its destruction at the metaphase-anaphase transition permits replication in the succeeding cell cycle.

  • Inhibits the transcriptional activity of a subset of Hox proteins, enrolling them in cell proliferative control.

Gene Wiki entry for GMNN Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GMNN Gene

Genomics for GMNN Gene

Regulatory Elements for GMNN Gene

Promoters for GMNN Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GMNN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GMNN Gene

Chromosome:
6
Start:
24,774,931 bp from pter
End:
24,786,099 bp from pter
Size:
11,169 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GMNN Gene

Genes around GMNN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GMNN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GMNN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GMNN Gene

Proteins for GMNN Gene

  • Protein details for GMNN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O75496-GEMI_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Geminin
    Protein Accession:
    O75496
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KMM8
    • Q9H1Z1

    Protein attributes for GMNN Gene

    Size:
    209 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23565 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer. Interacts with CDT1; this inhibits binding of the MCM complex to origins of replication. The complex with CDT1 exists in two forms, a "permissive" heterotrimer and an "inhibitory" heterohexamer. Interacts (via coiled-coil domain) with IDAS (via coiled-coil domain); this targets GMNN to the nucleus. The heterodimer formed by GMNN and MCIDAS has much lower affinity for CDT1 than the GMNN homodimer. Interacts with a subset of Hox proteins, affinity increasing from anterior to posterior types, the strongest interaction being with HOXB1, HOXC9 and HOXD10. Interacts with LRWD1 from G1/S to mitosis.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=CAC21511.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GMNN Gene

neXtProt entry for GMNN Gene

Proteomics data for GMNN Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GMNN Gene

  • Phosphorylated during mitosis. Phosphorylation at Ser-184 by CK2 results in enhanced binding to Hox proteins and more potent inhibitory effect on Hox transcriptional activity.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 50
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for GMNN (Geminin)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GMNN Gene

Domains & Families for GMNN Gene

Protein Domains for GMNN Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GMNN Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O75496

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GEMI_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the geminin family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the geminin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GMNN: view

No data available for Gene Families for GMNN Gene

Function for GMNN Gene

Molecular function for GMNN Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex (pre-RC). It is degraded during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Its destruction at the metaphase-anaphase transition permits replication in the succeeding cell cycle.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Inhibits the transcriptional activity of a subset of Hox proteins, enrolling them in cell proliferative control.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GMNN: view

Animal Models for GMNN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GMNN:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GMNN Gene

Localization for GMNN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GMNN Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Mainly cytoplasmic but can be relocalized to the nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GMNN Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GMNN gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 5
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GMNN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 21543332
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GMNN: view

Pathways & Interactions for GMNN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GMNN: view

Pathways by source for GMNN Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GMNN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006275 regulation of DNA replication IEA --
GO:0008156 negative regulation of DNA replication IDA 9635433
GO:0009887 organ morphogenesis IEA --
GO:0045892 negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA 16924111
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GMNN: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GMNN Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GMNN Gene

(1) Drugs for GMNN Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GMNN: view

Transcripts for GMNN Gene

Unigene Clusters for GMNN Gene

Geminin, DNA replication inhibitor:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GMNN Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d · 8e
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7:
SP8: -

Relevant External Links for GMNN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GMNN
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GMNN

Expression for GMNN Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GMNN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GMNN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (x4.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GMNN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal ovary (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GMNN Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GMNN Gene Hs.234896

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GMNN: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GMNN Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GMNN Gene

Orthologs for GMNN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GMNN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GMNN 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
GMNN 35
  • 99.36 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GMNN 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
GMNN 35
  • 86.05 (n)
  • 76.09 (a)
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GMNN 35
  • 84.37 (n)
  • 77.03 (a)
GMNN 36
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gmnn 16
Gmnn 35
  • 83.25 (n)
  • 79.02 (a)
Gmnn 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GMNN 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GMNN 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gmnn 35
  • 83.9 (n)
  • 76.59 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GMNN 35
  • 66.46 (n)
  • 61.01 (a)
GMNN 36
  • 47 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 53 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.461 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gmnn 35
  • 62.91 (n)
  • 57.44 (a)
Str.6403 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gmnn 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToOne
gmnn 35
  • 56.46 (n)
  • 51.87 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.5193 36
  • 20 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GMNN:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GMNN Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GMNN (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GMNN (if available)

Paralogs for GMNN Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for GMNN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GMNN: view

No data available for Paralogs for GMNN Gene

Variants for GMNN Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GMNN Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1923185 - 24,780,664(+) TTAGA(A/C)TAGTT reference, missense
rs34891389 - 24,777,289(+) AAGAG(A/C)ATATA upstream-variant-2KB, reference, missense
rs2307307 - 24,781,491(+) GGCTT(C/G)TCCAA reference, missense
rs2307306 - 24,781,507(+) AACAT(C/T)GGAAT reference, missense
rs2307302 - 24,781,525(+) TAACA(C/T)CTACA reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GMNN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv830609 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv5227 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv508396 CNV Loss 20534489

Variation tolerance for GMNN Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 73.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.74; 83.17% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GMNN Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GMNN

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GMNN Gene

Disorders for GMNN Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for GMNN Gene - From: ClinVar, Orphanet, and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
meier-gorlin syndrome 1
  • meier-gorlin syndrome
melanoacanthoma
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GMNN in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GMNN

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GMNN
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GMNN
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GMNN
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GMNN: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GMNN Gene

Publications for GMNN Gene

  1. Geminin, an inhibitor of DNA replication, is degraded during mitosis. (PMID: 9635433) McGarry T.J. … Kirschner M.W. (Cell 1998) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Geminin is partially localized to the centrosome and plays a role in proper centrosome duplication. (PMID: 18798731) Lu F. … Zhang C. (Biol. Cell 2009) 3 23
  3. Selective killing of cancer cells by suppression of geminin activity. (PMID: 19487297) Zhu W. … Depamphilis M.L. (Cancer Res. 2009) 3 23
  4. Human Cdt1 lacking the evolutionarily conserved region that interacts with MCM2-7 is capable of inducing re-replication. (PMID: 18184650) Teer J.K. … Dutta A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2008) 3 23
  5. Inhibitory action of polyunsaturated fatty acids on Cdt1-geminin interaction. (PMID: 18288374) Mizushina Y. … Fujita M. (Int. J. Mol. Med. 2008) 3 23

Products for GMNN Gene

Sources for GMNN Gene

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