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Aliases for GMNN Gene

Aliases for GMNN Gene

  • Geminin, DNA Replication Inhibitor 2 3
  • Geminin 3
  • Gem 3

External Ids for GMNN Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GMNN Gene

  • GC06P024832
  • GC06P024883
  • GC06P024778
  • GC06P024725

Summaries for GMNN Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GMNN Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein that plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein inhibits DNA replication by binding to DNA replication factor Cdt1, preventing the incorporation of minichromosome maintenance proteins into the pre-replication complex. The encoded protein is expressed during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle and is degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex during the metaphase-anaphase transition. Increased expression of this gene may play a role in several malignancies including colon, rectal and breast cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and two pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosome 16. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GMNN Gene

GMNN (Geminin, DNA Replication Inhibitor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GMNN include melanoacanthoma and breast cancer. Among its related pathways are Cell Cycle, Mitotic and Cell Cycle, Mitotic. GO annotations related to this gene include transcription corepressor activity and repressing transcription factor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GMNN Gene

  • Inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex (pre-RC). It is degraded during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Its destruction at the metaphase-anaphase transition permits replication in the succeeding cell cycle

  • Inhibits the transcriptional activity of a subset of Hox proteins, enrolling them in cell proliferative control

Gene Wiki entry for GMNN Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GMNN Gene

Genomics for GMNN Gene

Regulatory Elements for GMNN Gene

Genomic Location for GMNN Gene

Start:
24,774,931 bp from pter
End:
24,786,099 bp from pter
Size:
11,169 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for GMNN Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GMNN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GMNN Gene

Proteins for GMNN Gene

  • Protein details for GMNN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O75496-GEMI_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Geminin
    Protein Accession:
    O75496
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KMM8
    • Q9H1Z1

    Protein attributes for GMNN Gene

    Size:
    209 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    23565 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotetramer. Interacts with CDT1; this inhibits binding of the MCM complex to origins of replication. The complex with CDT1 exists in two forms, a "permissive" heterotrimer and an "inhibitory" heterohexamer. Interacts (via coiled-coil domain) with IDAS (via coiled-coil domain); this targets GMNN to the nucleus. The heterodimer formed by GMNN and MCIDAS has much lower affinity for CDT1 than the GMNN homodimer. Interacts with a subset of Hox proteins, affinity increasing from anterior to posterior types, the strongest interaction being with HOXB1, HOXC9 and HOXD10. Interacts with LRWD1 from G1/S to mitosis.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=CAC21511.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GMNN Gene

neXtProt entry for GMNN Gene

Proteomics data for GMNN Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GMNN Gene

  • Phosphorylated during mitosis. Phosphorylation at Ser-184 by CK2 results in enhanced binding to Hox proteins and more potent inhibitory effect on Hox transcriptional activity.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys50
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GMNN Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GMNN Gene

Domains for GMNN Gene

Protein Domains for GMNN Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GMNN Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O75496

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GEMI_HUMAN :
  • O75496
Family:
  • Belongs to the geminin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GMNN: view

No data available for Gene Families for GMNN Gene

Function for GMNN Gene

Molecular function for GMNN Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex (pre-RC). It is degraded during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Its destruction at the metaphase-anaphase transition permits replication in the succeeding cell cycle
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Inhibits the transcriptional activity of a subset of Hox proteins, enrolling them in cell proliferative control

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GMNN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003714 transcription corepressor activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 11125146
GO:0042826 histone deacetylase binding IPI 16924111
GO:0070491 repressing transcription factor binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GMNN: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GMNN: view

Animal Models for GMNN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GMNN:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GMNN Gene

Localization for GMNN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GMNN Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Mainly cytoplasmic but can be relocalized to the nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GMNN Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GMNN gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 4
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GMNN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GMNN: view

Pathways for GMNN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GMNN: view

Pathways by source for GMNN Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GMNN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006275 regulation of DNA replication --
GO:0006461 protein complex assembly IEA --
GO:0008156 negative regulation of DNA replication IDA 9635433
GO:0009887 organ morphogenesis IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GMNN: view

Compounds for GMNN Gene

(1) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GMNN Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
atp 0 2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GMNN: view

Transcripts for GMNN Gene

Unigene Clusters for GMNN Gene

Geminin, DNA replication inhibitor:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GMNN Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b · 8c · 8d · 8e
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7:
SP8: -

Relevant External Links for GMNN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GMNN
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GMNN

Expression for GMNN Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GMNN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GMNN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (4.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GMNN Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GMNN Gene Hs.234896

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GMNN: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GMNN Gene

Orthologs for GMNN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GMNN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GMNN 35
  • 99.36 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
GMNN 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GMNN 35
  • 86.05 (n)
  • 76.09 (a)
GMNN 36
  • 75 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GMNN 35
  • 84.37 (n)
  • 77.03 (a)
GMNN 36
  • 76 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gmnn 35
  • 83.25 (n)
  • 79.02 (a)
Gmnn 16
Gmnn 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GMNN 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GMNN 36
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gmnn 35
  • 83.9 (n)
  • 76.59 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GMNN 35
  • 66.46 (n)
  • 61.01 (a)
GMNN 36
  • 47 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 53 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 42 (a)
OneToMany
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.461 35
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gmnn 35
  • 62.91 (n)
  • 57.44 (a)
Str.6403 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gmnn 35
  • 56.46 (n)
  • 51.87 (a)
gmnn 36
  • 38 (a)
OneToOne
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.5193 36
  • 20 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GMNN:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GMNN Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GMNN (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GMNN (if available)

Paralogs for GMNN Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for GMNN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GMNN: view

No data available for Paralogs for GMNN Gene

Variants for GMNN Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GMNN Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1555430 -- 24,780,035(+) ATTTG(A/G)GGGAT intron-variant
rs1802380 -- 24,785,879(+) TAACT(A/G)CATAA utr-variant-3-prime
rs1923185 - 24,780,664(+) TTAGA(A/C)TAGTT reference, missense
rs2064976 -- 24,781,060(+) tagcc(A/G)ggcgt intron-variant
rs2145752 -- 24,785,354(+) ACCTA(C/G)TTGTC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GMNN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv830609 CNV Gain 17160897
nsv5227 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv508396 CNV Loss 20534489

Relevant External Links for GMNN Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GMNN

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GMNN Gene

Disorders for GMNN Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (2) Diseases for GMNN Gene including...

Search for GMNN Gene in MalaCards »

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GMNN Gene

(7) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GMNN Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
cancer 32.6 21
oligodendroglioma 27.6 1
tumors 3.68 21
colon cancer 0 3
breast cancer 0 10

Relevant External Links for GMNN

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GMNN
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GMNN
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GMNN: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GMNN Gene

Publications for GMNN Gene

  1. Geminin, an inhibitor of DNA replication, is degraded during mitosis. (PMID: 9635433) McGarry T.J. … Kirschner M.W. (Cell 1998) 2 3 4 23
  2. Cdt1 phosphorylation by cyclin A-dependent kinases negatively regulates its function without affecting geminin binding. (PMID: 14993212) Sugimoto N. … Fujita M. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 23
  3. A dimerized coiled-coil domain and an adjoining part of geminin interact with two sites on Cdt1 for replication inhibition. (PMID: 15260975) Saxena S. … Dutta A. (Mol. Cell 2004) 3 4 23
  4. Crystal structure of the coiled-coil dimerization motif of geminin: structural and functional insights on DNA replication regulation. (PMID: 15313623) Thepaut M. … Padilla A. (J. Mol. Biol. 2004) 3 4 23
  5. Regulation of replication licensing by acetyltransferase Hbo1. (PMID: 16428461) Iizuka M. … Smith M.M. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 2006) 3 23

Products for GMNN Gene

Sources for GMNN Gene

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