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Aliases for GLRX2 Gene

Aliases for GLRX2 Gene

  • Glutaredoxin 2 2 3
  • GRX2 3 4 6
  • BA101E13.1 (GRX2 Glutaredoxin (Thioltransferase) 2) 2 3
  • CGI-133 3

External Ids for GLRX2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GLRX2 Gene

  • GC01M190855
  • GC01M188579
  • GC01M189532
  • GC01M190353
  • GC01M189797
  • GC01M191332
  • GC01M164301

Summaries for GLRX2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GLRX2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glutaredoxin family of proteins, which maintain cellular thiol homeostasis. These proteins are thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that use a glutathione-binding site and one or two active cysteines in their active site. This gene undergoes alternative splicing to produce multiple isoforms, one of which is ubiquitously expressed and localizes to mitochondria, where it functions in mitochondrial redox homeostasis and is important for the protection against and recovery from oxidative stress. Other isoforms, which have more restrictive expression patterns, show cytosolic and nuclear localization, and are thought to function in cellular differentiation and transformation, possibly with a role in tumor progression. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GLRX2 Gene

GLRX2 (Glutaredoxin 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are PAK Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include electron carrier activity and 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding. An important paralog of this gene is GLRX.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX2 Gene

  • Glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and regulation of apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Acts as a very efficient catalyst of monothiol reactions because of its high affinity for protein glutathione-mixed disulfides. Can receive electrons not only from glutathione (GSH), but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions. Efficiently catalyzes both glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of mitochondrial complex I, which in turn regulates the superoxide production by the complex. Overexpression decreases the susceptibility to apoptosis and prevents loss of cardiolipin and cytochrome c release.

Gene Wiki entry for GLRX2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GLRX2 Gene

Genomics for GLRX2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GLRX2 Gene

Genomic Location for GLRX2 Gene

Start:
193,096,465 bp from pter
End:
193,106,537 bp from pter
Size:
10,073 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GLRX2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GLRX2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GLRX2 Gene

Proteins for GLRX2 Gene

  • Protein details for GLRX2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q9NS18-GLRX2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q9NS18
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q3LR69
    • Q7L1N7
    • Q96JC0
    • Q9Y3D4

    Protein attributes for GLRX2 Gene

    Size:
    164 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18052 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer; active form. Homodimer; inactive form. The homodimer is probably linked by 1 2Fe-2S cluster.
    Miscellaneous:
    • The absence of GLRX2 dramatically sensitizes cells to cell death induced by doxorubicin/adriamycin and phenylarsine oxide
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAD34128.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=Several; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAH28113.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GLRX2 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GLRX2 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GLRX2 Gene

Proteomics data for GLRX2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GLRX2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GLRX2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GLRX2 Gene

Domains for GLRX2 Gene

Protein Domains for GLRX2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GLRX2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q9NS18

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GLRX2_HUMAN :
  • Q9NS18
Domain:
  • Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the glutaredoxin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GLRX2: view

No data available for Gene Families for GLRX2 Gene

Function for GLRX2 Gene

Molecular function for GLRX2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties: Kinetic parameters: KM=5.9 mM for GSH {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14676218}; KM=0.77 mM for glutathionylated ribonuclease A {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14676218}; KM=4.3 mM for glutathionylated BSA {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14676218}; KM=0.11 mM for glutathionylated beta-mercaptoethanol {ECO:0000269 PubMed:14676218};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation: The 2Fe-2S present in the homodimer leads to inactivation of the enzyme. The 2Fe-2S may serve as a redox sensor: the presence of one-electron oxidants or reductants leading to the loss of the 2Fe-2S cluster, subsequent monomerization and activation of the enzyme. Unlike other glutaredoxins, it is not inhibited by oxidation of structural Cys residues.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and regulation of apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Acts as a very efficient catalyst of monothiol reactions because of its high affinity for protein glutathione-mixed disulfides. Can receive electrons not only from glutathione (GSH), but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions. Efficiently catalyzes both glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of mitochondrial complex I, which in turn regulates the superoxide production by the complex. Overexpression decreases the susceptibility to apoptosis and prevents loss of cardiolipin and cytochrome c release.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GLRX2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003756 protein disulfide isomerase activity TAS 11297543
GO:0008794 arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) activity TAS 11297543
GO:0009055 electron carrier activity NAS 11297543
GO:0015035 protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0015038 glutathione disulfide oxidoreductase activity TAS 11297543
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLRX2: view

Phenotypes for GLRX2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GLRX2: view

Animal Models for GLRX2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GLRX2:

miRNA for GLRX2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GLRX2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GLRX2 Gene

Localization for GLRX2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX2 Gene

Isoform 1: Mitochondrion.
Isoform 2: Nucleus.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GLRX2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GLRX2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 3
extracellular 2
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GLRX2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm IDA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA 11297543
GO:0043231 intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLRX2: view

Pathways for GLRX2 Gene

SuperPathways for GLRX2 Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 PAK Pathway
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GLRX2: view

Pathways by source for GLRX2 Gene

1 Qiagen pathway for GLRX2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GLRX2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated NAS 11297543
GO:0006457 protein folding TAS 11297543
GO:0006749 glutathione metabolic process TAS 11397793
GO:0006915 apoptotic process NAS 11297543
GO:0009266 response to temperature stimulus NAS 11397793
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GLRX2: view

Compounds for GLRX2 Gene

(1) Drugbank Compounds for GLRX2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number Type Actions PubMed IDs
Glutathione
  • 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine
70-18-8 target

(6) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GLRX2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
hydroxyethyl disulfide 81.8 1
dithiol 73.3 2
iron-sulfur 72 8
gssg 69.6 5
doxorubicin 31.5 6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GLRX2: view

Transcripts for GLRX2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GLRX2 Gene

Glutaredoxin 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GLRX2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b
SP1: -
SP2:
SP3: - -

Relevant External Links for GLRX2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GLRX2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GLRX2

Expression for GLRX2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GLRX2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GLRX2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (4.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GLRX2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GLRX2 Gene Hs.458283

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GLRX2 Gene

Q9NS18-GLRX2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Widely expressed. Expressed in brain, heart, skeletal muscle, colon, thymus, spleen, kidney, liver, small intestine, placenta and lung. Not expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GLRX2: view

Orthologs for GLRX2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for GLRX2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GLRX2 35
  • 93.92 (n)
  • 93.43 (a)
GLRX2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GLRX2 35
  • 83.7 (n)
  • 83.94 (a)
GLRX2 36
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GLRX2 35
  • 94.39 (n)
  • 96.26 (a)
GLRX2 36
  • 71 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Glrx2 35
  • 78.61 (n)
  • 76.12 (a)
Glrx2 16
Glrx2 36
  • 65 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GLRX2 36
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 72 (a)
OneToMany
-- 36
  • 52 (a)
OneToMany
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Glrx2 35
  • 83.6 (n)
  • 81.45 (a)
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GLRX2 35
  • 71.23 (n)
  • 66.67 (a)
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GLRX2 36
  • 64 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia glrx2 35
  • 62.12 (n)
  • 54.55 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii glrx2 35
  • 60.96 (n)
  • 53.15 (a)
glrx2 36
  • 34 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta GRX1 35
  • 49.06 (n)
  • 43.4 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG6852 36
  • 41 (a)
OneToMany
Grx-1 35
  • 58.62 (n)
  • 52.87 (a)
Grx-1 36
  • 40 (a)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GRX1 36
  • 32 (a)
ManyToMany
GRX2 36
  • 27 (a)
ManyToMany
GRX2 38
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.7128 36
  • 45 (a)
OneToOne
Species with no ortholog for GLRX2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GLRX2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GLRX2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GLRX2 (if available)

Paralogs for GLRX2 Gene

Paralogs for GLRX2 Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for GLRX2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GLRX2: view

Variants for GLRX2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GLRX2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs912070 -- 193,106,314(-) AGAAC(G/T)GTCAG upstream-variant-2KB, intron-variant
rs912071 -- 193,105,978(-) GTGGT(A/G)GGAAA utr-variant-5-prime, upstream-variant-2KB, intron-variant
rs1075660 -- 193,105,562(+) GCTGG(A/C/G)TTCCA intron-variant, missense, reference, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1075661 -- 193,105,599(+) CTTTA(C/G)AGGGG intron-variant, reference, missense, upstream-variant-2KB
rs1221539 -- 193,098,766(-) tgaga(C/T)gagcc intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GLRX2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv466994 CNV Loss 19166990

Relevant External Links for GLRX2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GLRX2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX2 Gene

Disorders for GLRX2 Gene

Relevant External Links for GLRX2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GLRX2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GLRX2
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GLRX2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GLRX2 Gene

Publications for GLRX2 Gene

  1. Cloning and expression of a novel human glutaredoxin (Grx2) with mitochondrial and nuclear isoforms. (PMID: 11297543) Lundberg M. … Holmgren A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 2 3 4 23
  2. Identification and characterization of a new mammalian glutaredoxin (thioltransferase), Grx2. (PMID: 11397793) Gladyshev V.N. … Lou M.F. (J. Biol. Chem. 2001) 3 4 23
  3. Human mitochondrial glutaredoxin reduces S-glutathionylated proteins with high affinity accepting electrons from either glutathione or thioredoxin reductase. (PMID: 14676218) Johansson C. … Holmgren A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2004) 3 4 23
  4. Short interfering RNA-mediated silencing of glutaredoxin 2 increases the sensitivity of HeLa cells toward doxorubicin and phenylarsine oxide. (PMID: 15328416) Lillig C.H. … Holmgren A. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2004) 3 4 23
  5. Overexpression of glutaredoxin 2 attenuates apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release. (PMID: 15649413) Enoksson M. … Orrenius S. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005) 3 4 23

Products for GLRX2 Gene

Sources for GLRX2 Gene

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