Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for DUOX2 Gene

Aliases for DUOX2 Gene

  • Dual Oxidase 2 2 3
  • NADH/NADPH Thyroid Oxidase P138-Tox 2 3 4
  • NADPH Oxidase/Peroxidase DUOX2 2 3 4
  • NADPH Thyroid Oxidase 2 2 3 4
  • THOX2 3 4 6
  • Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase 2 3
  • Dual Oxidase-Like Domains 2 2 3
  • Flavoprotein NADPH Oxidase 2 3
  • P138 Thyroid Oxidase 3 4
  • Thyroid Oxidase 2 3 4
  • Large NOX 2 3 4
  • Long NOX 2 3 4
  • LNOX2 3 4
  • TDH6 3 6
  • EC 1.11.1.- 4
  • EC 4
  • P138-TOX 3
  • NOXEF2 3

External Ids for DUOX2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DUOX2 Gene

  • GC15M040943
  • GC15M038431
  • GC15M042963
  • GC15M043100
  • GC15M043172
  • GC15M045384
  • GC15M022209

Summaries for DUOX2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DUOX2 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a glycoprotein and a member of the NADPH oxidase family. The synthesis of thyroid hormone is catalyzed by a protein complex located at the apical membrane of thyroid follicular cells. This complex contains an iodide transporter, thyroperoxidase, and a peroxide generating system that includes this encoded protein and DUOX1. This protein is known as dual oxidase because it has both a peroxidase homology domain and a gp91phox domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DUOX2 Gene

DUOX2 (Dual Oxidase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DUOX2 include thryoid dyshormonogenesis 6 and congenital hypothyroidism, duox2-related. Among its related pathways are Insulin secretion and Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) signaling pathways. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and peroxidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is NOX5.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DUOX2 Gene

  • Generates hydrogen peroxide which is required for the activity of thyroid peroxidase/TPO and lactoperoxidase/LPO. Plays a role in thyroid hormones synthesis and lactoperoxidase-mediated antimicrobial defense at the surface of mucosa. May have its own peroxidase activity through its N-terminal peroxidase-like domain.

Gene Wiki entry for DUOX2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DUOX2 Gene

Genomics for DUOX2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for DUOX2 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for DUOX2 Gene

45,092,650 bp from pter
45,114,344 bp from pter
21,695 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for DUOX2 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for DUOX2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DUOX2 Gene

Proteins for DUOX2 Gene

  • Protein details for DUOX2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Dual oxidase 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8MQ13
    • D2XI64
    • Q9NR02
    • Q9UHF9

    Protein attributes for DUOX2 Gene

    1548 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    175364 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with TXNDC11, TPO and CYBA.

neXtProt entry for DUOX2 Gene

Proteomics data for DUOX2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for DUOX2 Gene

Other Protein References for DUOX2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for DUOX2 Gene

Domains for DUOX2 Gene

Gene Families for DUOX2 Gene

  • EFHAND :EF-hand domain containing

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DUOX2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q9NRD8
  • Contains 3 EF-hand domains.
  • Contains 1 FAD-binding FR-type domain.
  • Contains 1 ferric oxidoreductase domain.
  • In the N-terminal section; belongs to the peroxidase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DUOX2: view

Function for DUOX2 Gene

Molecular function for DUOX2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
NAD(P)H + O(2) = NAD(P)(+) + H(2)O(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Peroxidase activity is inhibited by aminobenzohydrazide (By similarity). The NADPH oxidase activity is calcium-dependent.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Generates hydrogen peroxide which is required for the activity of thyroid peroxidase/TPO and lactoperoxidase/LPO. Plays a role in thyroid hormones synthesis and lactoperoxidase-mediated antimicrobial defense at the surface of mucosa. May have its own peroxidase activity through its N-terminal peroxidase-like domain.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By forskolin, thyrotropin and the Th1-specific cytokine IFNG/IFN-gamma.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DUOX2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DUOX2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004601 peroxidase activity IEA --
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IDA 15972824
GO:0016174 NAD(P)H oxidase activity IMP 21565790
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity --
GO:0020037 heme binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DUOX2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DUOX2: view

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for DUOX2

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for DUOX2 Gene

Localization for DUOX2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DUOX2 Gene

Apical cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Localizes to the apical membrane of epithelial cells.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for DUOX2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DUOX2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DUOX2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
GO:0016324 apical plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19199708
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DUOX2: view

Pathways for DUOX2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DUOX2: view

Pathways by source for DUOX2 Gene

1 BioSystems pathway for DUOX2 Gene
1 KEGG pathway for DUOX2 Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
    • Oxidative Stress in human,mouse,rat
    • Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway in human,mouse,rat

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q9NRD8-DUOX2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Hormone biosynthesis; thyroid hormone biosynthesis

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DUOX2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006590 thyroid hormone generation IEA --
GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress IEA --
GO:0009566 fertilization IEA --
GO:0009615 response to virus IDA 16111680
GO:0019221 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DUOX2: view

Compounds for DUOX2 Gene

(5) HMDB Compounds for DUOX2 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
  • Ca
  • 1H-Purin-6-amine flavin dinucleotide
Hydrogen peroxide
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • 3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide

(9) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for DUOX2 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
iodide 78.4 9
perchlorate 74.7 1
nadph 73.9 9
sodium iodide 70.8 3
h2o2 62 13
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DUOX2: view

Transcripts for DUOX2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for DUOX2 Gene

Dual oxidase 2:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for DUOX2

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DUOX2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DUOX2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DUOX2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for DUOX2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DUOX2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Thyroid (13.3), Stomach (8.3), Esophagus - Mucosa (5.8), and Vagina (4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues for DUOX2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Islet of Langerhans (47.3) and Nasal epithelium (15.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for DUOX2 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DUOX2 Gene Hs.71377

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DUOX2 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in colon, small intestine, duodenum and tracheal surface epithelial cells (at protein level). Expressed in thyrocytes. Also detected in kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, salivary glands, rectum and testis.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with DUOX2: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Expression partners for DUOX2 Gene

Orthologs for DUOX2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for DUOX2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DUOX2 35
  • 87.62 (n)
  • 87.57 (a)
DUOX2 36
  • 87 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DUOX2 35
  • 87.56 (n)
  • 87.26 (a)
DUOX2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Duox2 35
  • 84.93 (n)
  • 85.56 (a)
Duox2 16
Duox2 36
  • 86 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DUOX2 35
  • 99.42 (n)
  • 99.29 (a)
DUOX2 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Duox2 35
  • 84.38 (n)
  • 84.25 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DUOX2 36
  • 75 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 78 (a)
-- 36
  • 77 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 36
  • 66 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 56 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia duox2 35
  • 58.52 (n)
  • 58.72 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii duox 36
  • 55 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG3131 37
  • 38 (a)
Duox 35
  • 51.58 (n)
  • 39.93 (a)
Duox 36
  • 38 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta DUOX 35
  • 50.05 (n)
  • 40.62 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F53G12.3 37
  • 34 (a)
F56C11.1 37
  • 34 (a)
duox-2 35
  • 46.07 (n)
  • 37.53 (a)
bli-3 36
  • 36 (a)
duox-2 36
  • 35 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons RBOHB 35
  • 45.34 (n)
  • 33.6 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.14073 35
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 44 (a)
Species with no ortholog for DUOX2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DUOX2 Gene

Gene Tree for DUOX2 (if available)
Gene Tree for DUOX2 (if available)

Paralogs for DUOX2 Gene

Paralogs for DUOX2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DUOX2: view

Variants for DUOX2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DUOX2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 15 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs166574 -- 45,107,794(-) GGCTC(A/G)ATGCA intron-variant
rs190599 -- 45,107,269(-) ATCAC(C/T)TGGTG intron-variant
rs199137 -- 45,108,414(-) GTGGT(C/G)TTACC intron-variant
rs199138 -- 45,095,352(-) AAAGC(C/T)CCTGG intron-variant
rs269859 -- 45,110,742(-) CAACT(C/T)GTGCC intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DUOX2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv744e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv7264 OTHER Inversion 18451855
nsv9262 CNV Gain 18304495
dgv2378n71 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for DUOX2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DUOX2 Gene

Disorders for DUOX2 Gene

(1) OMIM Diseases for DUOX2 Gene (606759)


  • Thyroid dyshormonogenesis 6 (TDH6) [MIM:607200]: A disorder due to a defective conversion of accumulated iodide to organically bound iodine. The iodide organification defect can be partial or complete. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12110737, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16134168, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16322276, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20187165}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(3) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for DUOX2 Gene

(6) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for DUOX2 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
congenital hypothyroidism 86.7 17
pendred syndrome 68.2 2
hypothyroidism 55.6 6
adenoma 34.1 1
tumors 0 2

Relevant External Links for DUOX2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DUOX2: view

No data available for Genatlas for DUOX2 Gene

Publications for DUOX2 Gene

  1. Purification of a novel flavoprotein involved in the thyroid NADPH oxidase. Cloning of the porcine and human cDNAs. (PMID: 10601291) Dupuy C. … Virion A. (J. Biol. Chem. 1999) 2 3 4 23
  2. Characterization of ThOX proteins as components of the thyroid H(2)O(2)-generating system. (PMID: 11822874) De Deken X. … Miot F. (Exp. Cell Res. 2002) 3 4 23
  3. Dual oxidases represent novel hydrogen peroxide sources supporting mucosal surface host defense. (PMID: 12824283) Geiszt M. … Leto T.L. (FASEB J. 2003) 3 4 23
  4. Dual oxidase2 is expressed all along the digestive tract. (PMID: 15591162) Ameziane-El-Hassani R. … Dupuy C. (Am. J. Physiol. 2005) 3 4 23
  5. Dual oxidase-2 has an intrinsic Ca2+-dependent H2O2-generating activity. (PMID: 15972824) Ameziane-El-Hassani R. … Dupuy C. (J. Biol. Chem. 2005) 3 4 23

Products for DUOX2 Gene

Sources for DUOX2 Gene

Back to Top