Aliases for MMP12 Gene
External Ids for MMP12 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MMP12 Gene
Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. It is thought that the protein encoded by this gene is cleaved at both ends to yield the active enzyme, but this processing has not been fully described. The enzyme degrades soluble and insoluble elastin. It may play a role in aneurysm formation and studies in mice suggest a role in the development of emphysema. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes which localize to chromosome 11q22.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GeneCards Summary for MMP12 Gene
MMP12 (Matrix Metallopeptidase 12) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MMP12 include gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and coronary artery aneurysm. Among its related pathways are GPCR Pathway and Integrin Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and endopeptidase activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MMP12 Gene
May be involved in tissue injury and remodeling. Has significant elastolytic activity. Can accept large and small amino acids at the P1 site, but has a preference for leucine. Aromatic or hydrophobic residues are preferred at the P1 site, with small hydrophobic residues (preferably alanine) occupying P3
Matrix metalloproteases (matrix metalloproteinase, MMPs), also called matrixins, are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are the major proteases involved in ECM degradation. MMPs are capable of degrading a wide range of extracellular molecules and a number of bioactive molecules. 24 matrixin genes have been identified in humans, which can be organized into six groups based on domain organization and substrate preference: Collagenases (MMP-1, -8 and -13), Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), Stromelysins (MMP-3, -10 and -11), Matrilysin (MMP-7 and MMP-26), Membrane-type (MT)-MMPs (MMP-14, -15, -16, -17, -24 and -25) and others (MMP-12, -19, -20, -21, -23, -27 and -28). MMP activity is regulated by two major endogenous inhibitors: alpha2-macroglobulin and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). MMPs play a central role in cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and host defences. Dysregulatoin of MMPs has been implicated in many diseases including arthritis, chronic ulcers, encephalomyelitis and cancer. Tumour metastasis is a multistep process involving the dessemination of tumor cells from the primary tumor to secondarys at a distant organ or tissue. One of the first steps in metastasis is the degradation of the basement membrane, a process in which MMPs have been implicated. MMPs are secreted by tumor cells themselves or by surrounding stromal cells stimulated by the nearby tumor. Numerous studies have linked altered MMP expression in different human cancers with poor disease prognosis. MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -9, -13 and -14 all have elevated expression in primary tumors and/or metastases. Synthetic or natural inhibitors of MMPs result in inhibition of metastasis, while up-regulation of MMPs led to enhanced cancer cell invasion.