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Aliases for MC1R Gene

Aliases for MC1R Gene

  • Melanocortin 1 Receptor (Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Receptor) 2 3
  • SHEP2 3 6
  • MC1-R 3 4
  • MSH-R 3 4
  • CMM5 3 6
  • Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Receptor 3
  • Melanocortin Receptor 1 4
  • Melanotropin Receptor 3
  • MSHR 4

External Ids for MC1R Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MC1R Gene

  • GC16P081304
  • GC16P090971
  • GC16P089685
  • GC16P089727
  • GC16P088513
  • GC16P089985
  • GC16P089982

Summaries for MC1R Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MC1R Gene

  • This intronless gene encodes the receptor protein for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). The encoded protein, a seven pass transmembrane G protein coupled receptor, controls melanogenesis. Two types of melanin exist: red pheomelanin and black eumelanin. Gene mutations that lead to a loss in function are associated with increased pheomelanin production, which leads to lighter skin and hair color. Eumelanin is photoprotective but pheomelanin may contribute to UV-induced skin damage by generating free radicals upon UV radiation. Binding of MSH to its receptor activates the receptor and stimulates eumelanin synthesis. This receptor is a major determining factor in sun sensitivity and is a genetic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Over 30 variant alleles have been identified which correlate with skin and hair color, providing evidence that this gene is an important component in determining normal human pigment variation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MC1R Gene

MC1R (Melanocortin 1 Receptor (Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Receptor)) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MC1R include albinism, oculocutaneous, type ii and uv-induced skin damage. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include ubiquitin protein ligase binding and G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is LPAR1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MC1R Gene

  • Receptor for MSH (alpha, beta and gamma) and ACTH. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase

Tocris Summary for MC1R Gene

  • Melanocortin receptors are activated by members of the melanocortin family: alpha-, beta- and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Endogenous antagonists include agouti and agouti-related protein (AgRP). The melanocortin receptors are G-protein-coupled and 5 subtypes exist, MC1-5. The melanocortins are involved in a wide range of physiological functions, including pigmentation, energy homeostasis, inflammation, immunomodulation, steroidogenesis and temperature control.

Gene Wiki entry for MC1R Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MC1R Gene

Genomics for MC1R Gene

Regulatory Elements for MC1R Gene

Genomic Location for MC1R Gene

89,912,119 bp from pter
89,920,977 bp from pter
8,859 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MC1R Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for MC1R Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MC1R Gene

Proteins for MC1R Gene

  • Protein details for MC1R Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q66K38
    • Q6UR93
    • Q8WWX6
    • Q8WWX7
    • Q96I33
    • Q96RU4
    • Q9UBF7
    • Q9UN58
    • Q9UN59
    • Q9UN60
    • Q9UN61
    • Q9UN62

    Protein attributes for MC1R Gene

    317 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    34706 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with MGRN1, but does not undergo MGRN1-mediated ubiquitination; this interaction competes with GNAS-binding and thus inhibits agonist-induced cAMP production.

neXtProt entry for MC1R Gene

Proteomics data for MC1R Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for MC1R Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn29
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MC1R Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
Reactome Protein details:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MC1R Gene

Domains for MC1R Gene

Gene Families for MC1R Gene

  • MCNR :GPCR / Class A : Melanocortin receptors

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Q01726
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MC1R: view

Function for MC1R Gene

Molecular function for MC1R Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: melanocortin receptor 1,murine extension (Ext) homolog,expressed in cells of melanocytic origin and adrenal cortex,G protein coupled receptor superfamily,regulator of eumelanin and phaeomelanin production
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Receptor for MSH (alpha, beta and gamma) and ACTH. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MC1R Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity --
GO:0004977 melanocortin receptor activity TAS 9571181
GO:0004980 melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor activity IPI 19743876
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 19329486
GO:0008528 G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity TAS 18292087
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MC1R: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MC1R: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MC1R

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for MC1R Gene

Localization for MC1R Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MC1R Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for MC1R Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MC1R gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
plasma membrane 5
cytosol 4
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MC1R Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 9571181
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MC1R: view

Pathways for MC1R Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MC1R: view

Pathways by source for MC1R Gene

PCR Array Products

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
    • G Protein Coupled Receptors 384HT in human,mouse,rat

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MC1R Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
GO:0007187 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger TAS 9571181
GO:0007275 multicellular organismal development TAS 7581459
GO:0009650 UV protection TAS 7581459
GO:0010739 positive regulation of protein kinase A signaling ISS 18292087
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MC1R: view

Compounds for MC1R Gene

(5) Tocris Compounds for MC1R Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
[Nle4,D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH Melanocortin receptor agonist [75921-69-6]
[D-Trp8]-gamma-MSH Selective MC3 receptor agonist [321351-81-9]
ACTH (1-39) Potent endogenous MC2 agonist [12279-41-3]
BMS 470539 dihydrochloride Potent, selective MC1 receptor agonist [457893-92-4]
MCL 0020 Selective MC4 receptor antagonist [475498-26-1]

(9) IUPHAR Ligand for MC1R Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
NDP-MSH Agonist Full agonist 10
[125I]NDP-MSH Agonist Full agonist 9.5
MT-II Agonist Full agonist 9.4
SHU9119 Agonist Partial agonist 9.2
MS05 Agonist Full agonist 9.1
alpha-MSH Agonist Full agonist 8.4
ASIP [90-132 (L89Y)] Antagonist Inverse agonist 8.1
HS024 Antagonist Antagonist 7.7
HS014 Agonist Partial agonist 7

(23) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for MC1R Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
eumelanin 92 34
phaeomelanin 88.5 8
alpha msh 84.4 15
acth 68.7 27
dopachrome 64.9 3

(1) PharmGKB related drug/compound annotations for MC1R Gene

Drug/compound Annotation
desipramine CA
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MC1R: view

Transcripts for MC1R Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MC1R Gene

Unigene Clusters for MC1R Gene

Melanocortin 1 receptor (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MC1R

Primer Products

  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MC1R Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MC1R Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MC1R Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for MC1R Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for MC1R Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MC1R Gene Hs.513829

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MC1R Gene

Tissue specificity: Melanocytes and corticoadrenal tissue
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with MC1R: view

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for MC1R Gene

Orthologs for MC1R Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for MC1R Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MC1R 35
  • 98.21 (n)
  • 97.47 (a)
MC1R 36
  • 97 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MC1-R 36
  • 81 (a)
MC1R 35
  • 84.65 (n)
  • 80.76 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MC1R 35
  • 83.91 (n)
  • 80.44 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mc1r 35
  • 79.68 (n)
  • 76.83 (a)
Mc1r 16
Mc1r 36
  • 77 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MC1R 36
  • 27 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MC1R 36
  • 35 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mc1r 35
  • 81.07 (n)
  • 78.86 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MC1R 35
  • 74.04 (n)
  • 62.24 (a)
MC1R 36
  • 61 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mc1r 35
  • 58.9 (n)
  • 53.4 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mc1r 35
  • 63.46 (n)
  • 60.82 (a)
mc1r 36
  • 54 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 15 (a)
-- 36
  • 17 (a)
Species with no ortholog for MC1R:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for MC1R Gene

Gene Tree for MC1R (if available)
Gene Tree for MC1R (if available)

Paralogs for MC1R Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MC1R: view

Variants for MC1R Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MC1R Gene

Genetic variants in MC1R define the skin/hair/eye pigmentation variation locus 2 (SHEP2) [MIM:266300]. Hair, eye and skin pigmentation are among the most visible examples of human phenotypic variation, with a broad normal range that is subject to substantial geographic stratification. In the case of skin, individuals tend to have lighter pigmentation with increasing distance from the equator, with type I skin being the most lightly pigmented and type IV the most dark pigmented. By contrast, the majority of variation in human eye and hair color is found among individuals of European ancestry, with most other human populations fixed for brown eyes and black hair. Partial loss-of-function mutations are associated with fair skin, poor tanning and increased skin cancer risk

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MC1R Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs885479 - 89,919,746(+) GCGGC(A/G)AGCCG missense, reference
rs1110400 - 89,919,722(+) CAGCA(C/T)CGTGA missense, reference
rs1805005 Pathogenic, - 89,919,436(+) TGGTG(G/T)TGGCC reference, missense
rs1805006 other, - 89,919,510(+) TCGGA(A/C)CTGCT missense, reference
rs1805007 Pathogenic, - 89,919,709(+) CACTG(C/G/T)GCTAC reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MC1R Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv428331 CNV Gain+Loss 18775914
dgv3009n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907429 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907433 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv3014n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv3015n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907441 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907442 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv907443 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv509640 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv519064 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv525671 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv907444 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for MC1R Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

Disorders for MC1R Gene

(4) OMIM Diseases for MC1R Gene (155555)


  • Melanoma, cutaneous malignant 5 (CMM5) [MIM:613099]: A malignant neoplasm of melanocytes, arising de novo or from a pre-existing benign nevus, which occurs most often in the skin but also may involve other sites. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17434924, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19338054}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

(4) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for MC1R Gene

(30) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for MC1R Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
melanoma 82 255
skin cancer 80.1 51
freckles 75.6 9
melanoma cloudman s91 63.7 1
albinism oculocutaneous 63.5 4

Relevant External Links for MC1R

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MC1R: view

Publications for MC1R Gene

  1. MC1R: three novel variants identified in a malignant melanoma association study in the Spanish population. (PMID: 17434924) Fernandez L. … Ribas G. (Carcinogenesis 2007) 3 4 23 48
  2. Distribution of two Asian-related coding SNPs in the MC1R and OCA2 genes. (PMID: 17570052) Yuasa I. … Henke J. (Biochem. Genet. 2007) 3 23 48
  3. Comprehensive evaluation of allele frequency differences of MC1R variants across populations. (PMID: 17279550) Gerstenblith M.R. … Landi M.T. (Hum. Mutat. 2007) 3 23 48
  4. Effect of Val92Met and Arg163Gln variants of the MC1R gene on freckles and solar lentigines in Japanese. (PMID: 17371441) Motokawa T. … Katagiri T. (Pigment Cell Res. 2007) 3 23 48
  5. Cutaneous phenotype and MC1R variants as modifying factors for the development of melanoma in CDKN2A G101W mutation carriers from 4 countries. (PMID: 17397031) Goldstein A.M. … de-Paillerets B.B. (Int. J. Cancer 2007) 3 23 48

Products for MC1R Gene

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
    • G Protein Coupled Receptors 384HT in human,mouse,rat
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate MC1R
  • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
  • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for MC1R
  • Block miRNA regulation of MC1R using miScript Target Protectors

Sources for MC1R Gene

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