Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for LUM Gene

Aliases for LUM Gene

  • Lumican 2 3 3 5
  • Keratan Sulfate Proteoglycan Lumican 3 4
  • Lumican Proteoglycan 2 3
  • KSPG Lumican 3 4
  • SLRR2D 3 4
  • LDC 3 4

External Ids for LUM Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for LUM Gene

  • LDC

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LUM Gene

  • GC12M090819
  • GC12M091944
  • GC12M091430
  • GC12M089999
  • GC12M088565

Summaries for LUM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LUM Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family that includes decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, keratocan, epiphycan, and osteoglycin. In these bifunctional molecules, the protein moiety binds collagen fibrils and the highly charged hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans regulate interfibrillar spacings. Lumican is the major keratan sulfate proteoglycan of the cornea but is also distributed in interstitial collagenous matrices throughout the body. Lumican may regulate collagen fibril organization and circumferential growth, corneal transparency, and epithelial cell migration and tissue repair. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for LUM Gene

LUM (Lumican) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LUM include Cornea Plana and Degenerative Myopia. Among its related pathways are ECM proteoglycans and Glycosaminoglycan metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include collagen binding and extracellular matrix structural constituent. An important paralog of this gene is FMOD.

Gene Wiki entry for LUM Gene

Additional gene information for LUM Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LUM Gene

Genomics for LUM Gene

Regulatory Elements for LUM Gene

Enhancers for LUM Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Enhancer Score Enhancer Sources Gene-Enhancer Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Gene Targets for Enhancer
GH12H091138 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.4 -28.9 -28941 5.4 JUN CEBPB FEZF1 ZNF384 EP300 POLR2A STAT3 FOXP2 FOS RCOR1 LUM DCN KERA LOC105369897
GH12H091175 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.2 -68.0 -68029 9.7 CTCF ZSCAN4 CEBPB RAD21 NR2F2 JUND ZNF316 ZNF366 POLR2A ZNF512 KERA LUM LOC105369897 DCN
GH12H090979 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 12.1 +133.6 133614 0.4 CTCF ZNF654 MAFF TRIM22 SMC3 REST RAD21 LUM CCER1 EPYC
GH12H091073 0.7 ENCODE dbSUPER 10.5 +37.5 37506 1.7 ZBTB10 FOXA2 LUM KERA GC12P091066
GH12H091357 0.7 ENCODE 10.4 -245.8 -245772 1.1 ELF3 PKNOX1 NFYC ELF1 ZNF217 CTBP1 JUND GATA3 POLR2A HNF4G LUM DCN LOC105369898 GC12M091347
- Elite enhancer and/or Elite enhancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

Enhancers around LUM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for LUM Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters
ENSR00000055255 1030 1200

Genomic Locations for LUM Gene

Genomic Locations for LUM Gene
9,203 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for LUM Gene

Genes around LUM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LUM Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LUM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LUM Gene

Proteins for LUM Gene

  • Protein details for LUM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R6R5
    • Q96QM7

    Protein attributes for LUM Gene

    338 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38429 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Binds to laminin.

neXtProt entry for LUM Gene

Post-translational modifications for LUM Gene

  • Sulfated on tyrosine residue(s).
  • Glycosylation at Asn88, posLast=127127, Asn160, and posLast=252252
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for LUM Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Protein Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LUM Gene

Domains & Families for LUM Gene

Gene Families for LUM Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LUM Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family. SLRP class II subfamily.
  • Belongs to the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family. SLRP class II subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LUM: view

Function for LUM Gene

Molecular function for LUM Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
lumican,keratan sulfate proteoglycan one of the three major constituents of the corneal stroma,playing a role in the regulation of collagen assembly into fibrils in various connective tissues,small-leucine-rich proteoglycans family

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LUM Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LUM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005201 extracellular matrix structural constituent NAS 10892350
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25304424
GO:0005518 collagen binding IDA 10892350
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LUM: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LUM: view

Animal Models for LUM Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LUM:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LUM Gene

Localization for LUM Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LUM Gene

Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LUM gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
lysosome 5
golgi apparatus 4
cytoskeleton 2
plasma membrane 1
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LUM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005578 proteinaceous extracellular matrix TAS 7665616
GO:0005583 fibrillar collagen trimer IDA 10734230
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA,IEA 20551380
GO:0005796 Golgi lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LUM: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for LUM Gene

Pathways & Interactions for LUM Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LUM: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LUM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007409 NOT axonogenesis IBA --
GO:0007601 visual perception IEA,TAS --
GO:0014070 response to organic cyclic compound IEA --
GO:0018146 keratan sulfate biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0030198 extracellular matrix organization TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LUM: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LUM Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LUM Gene

(1) Drugs for LUM Gene - From: DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Copper Approved Pharma Target 188
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LUM: view

Transcripts for LUM Gene

mRNA/cDNA for LUM Gene

Unigene Clusters for LUM Gene

Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LUM Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b · 3c
SP2: - -
SP3: -

Relevant External Links for LUM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LUM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LUM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LUM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (x4.4), Heart - Atrial Appendage (x4.1), and Adipose - Visceral (Omentum) (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LUM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (6.3) and Synovial fluid (6.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for LUM Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LUM Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LUM Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LUM Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LUM Gene:

Tissue specificity: Cornea and other tissues.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LUM Gene

  • Lung(4.9)
  • Intestine(4.8)
  • Eye(4.7)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Heart(4.3)
  • Bone marrow(4.2)
  • Pancreas(3.7)
  • Muscle(3.2)
  • Gall bladder(3.1)
  • Stomach(3.1)
  • Bone(2.9)
  • Lymph node(2.9)
  • Adrenal gland(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.5)
  • Nervous system(2.4)
  • Skin(2.3)
  • Blood(2.2)
  • Spleen(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LUM: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LUM Gene

Orthologs for LUM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for LUM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LUM 33 34
  • 99.41 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LUM 33 34
  • 89.64 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LUM 33 34
  • 87.67 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Lum 33 16 34
  • 82.45 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Lum 33
  • 82.05 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LUM 34
  • 75 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LUM 34
  • 74 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LUM 33 34
  • 69.94 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LUM 34
  • 65 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia lum 33
  • 63.01 (n)
Str.15551 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC64527 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii lum 33 34
  • 57.35 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 28 (a)
Species where no ortholog for LUM was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for LUM Gene

Gene Tree for LUM (if available)
Gene Tree for LUM (if available)

Paralogs for LUM Gene

Paralogs for LUM Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for LUM Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LUM: view

Variants for LUM Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LUM Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs1000372689 -- 91,112,781(+) TAGGC(C/T)TCAGT upstream-variant-2KB
rs1000905803 -- 91,103,437(+) CTATG(C/T)TCACA downstream-variant-500B
rs1001019883 -- 91,103,138(+) ATATT(C/G)GCTTC downstream-variant-500B
rs1001137864 -- 91,109,763(+) GAGAT(C/T)CAACA intron-variant
rs1001312923 -- 91,110,173(+) CCTGG(A/G)AGATA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LUM Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv559751 CNV loss 21841781
dgv2784n54 CNV loss 21841781
dgv210n27 CNV loss 19166990

Variation tolerance for LUM Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 35.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.08; 22.07% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for LUM Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LUM Gene

Disorders for LUM Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(8) MalaCards diseases for LUM Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
cornea plana
  • flat cornea
degenerative myopia
  • degenerative progressive high myopia
corneal dystrophy, posterior amorphous
  • posterior amorphous corneal dystrophy
corneal dystrophy, congenital stromal
  • congenital stromal corneal dystrophy
la crosse encephalitis
  • california encephalitis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LUM in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for LUM

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LUM: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for LUM Gene

Publications for LUM Gene

  1. Primary structure of human lumican (keratan sulfate proteoglycan) and localization of the gene (LUM) to chromosome 12q21.3-q22. (PMID: 7558030) Chakravarti S … Hassell JR (Genomics 1995) 2 3 4 22 60
  2. Association of the lumican gene functional 3'-UTR polymorphism with high myopia. (PMID: 19643966) Lin HJ … Tsai FJ (Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 2010) 3 22 45 60
  3. The association between lumican gene polymorphisms and high myopia. (PMID: 20010793) Lin HJ … Tsai FJ (Eye (London, England) 2010) 3 45 60
  4. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 45 60
  5. High myopia is not associated with the SNPs in the TGIF, lumican, TGFB1, and HGF genes. (PMID: 19060265) Wang P … Zhang Q (Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 2009) 3 45 60

Products for LUM Gene

Sources for LUM Gene

Loading form....