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Aliases for LIMK1 Gene

Aliases for LIMK1 Gene

  • LIM Domain Kinase 1 2 3 5
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 63
  • LIMK-1 3 4
  • LIMK 3 4
  • LIM Motif-Containing Protein Kinase 3

External Ids for LIMK1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LIMK1 Gene

  • GC07P072138
  • GC07P072896
  • GC07P072910
  • GC07P072942
  • GC07P073136
  • GC07P073497
  • GC07P069382

Summaries for LIMK1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LIMK1 Gene

  • There are approximately 40 known eukaryotic LIM proteins, so named for the LIM domains they contain. LIM domains are highly conserved cysteine-rich structures containing 2 zinc fingers. Although zinc fingers usually function by binding to DNA or RNA, the LIM motif probably mediates protein-protein interactions. LIM kinase-1 and LIM kinase-2 belong to a small subfamily with a unique combination of 2 N-terminal LIM motifs and a C-terminal protein kinase domain. LIMK1 is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates actin polymerization via phosphorylation and inactivation of the actin binding factor cofilin. This protein is ubiquitously expressed during development and plays a role in many cellular processes associated with cytoskeletal structure. This protein also stimulates axon growth and may play a role in brain development. LIMK1 hemizygosity is implicated in the impaired visuospatial constructive cognition of Williams syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

GeneCards Summary for LIMK1 Gene

LIMK1 (LIM Domain Kinase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LIMK1 include williams-beuren syndrome and supravalvar aortic stenosis. Among its related pathways are Sertoli-Sertoli Cell Junction Dynamics and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TESK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LIMK1 Gene

  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays an essential role in the regulation of actin filament dynamics. Acts downstream of several Rho family GTPase signal transduction pathways. Activated by upstream kinases including ROCK1, PAK1 and PAK4, which phosphorylate LIMK1 on a threonine residue located in its activation loop. LIMK1 subsequently phosphorylates and inactivates the actin binding/depolymerizing factors cofilin-1/CFL1, cofilin-2/CFL2 and destrin/DSTN, thereby preventing the cleavage of filamentous actin (F-actin), and stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton. In this way LIMK1 regulates several actin-dependent biological processes including cell motility, cell cycle progression, and differentiation. Phosphorylates TPPP on serine residues, thereby promoting microtubule disassembly. Stimulates axonal outgrowth and may be involved in brain development. Isoform 3 has a dominant negative effect on actin cytoskeletal changes. Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1).

Tocris Summary for LIMK1 Gene

  • LIM kinases (LIMKs), EC 2.7.11.1, are dual specificity kinases (serine/threonine and tyrosine), which phosphorylate and inactivate cofilin (a key regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics). There are two isoforms of LIMK: LIMK1 and LIMK2.

Gene Wiki entry for LIMK1 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LIMK1 Gene

Genomics for LIMK1 Gene

Regulatory Elements for LIMK1 Gene

Promoters for LIMK1 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around LIMK1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for LIMK1 Gene

Chromosome:
7
Start:
74,082,933 bp from pter
End:
74,122,525 bp from pter
Size:
39,593 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for LIMK1 Gene

Genes around LIMK1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LIMK1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LIMK1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LIMK1 Gene

Proteins for LIMK1 Gene

  • Protein details for LIMK1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P53667-LIMK1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    LIM domain kinase 1
    Protein Accession:
    P53667
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7Z6I8
    • D3DXF4
    • D3DXF5
    • O15283
    • Q15820
    • Q15821
    • Q75MU3
    • Q9Y5Q1

    Protein attributes for LIMK1 Gene

    Size:
    647 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    72585 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts (via LIM domain) with the cytoplasmic domain of NRG1 (By similarity). Interacts with NISCH (By similarity). Interacts with RLIM and RNF6 (By similarity). Self-associates to form homodimers. Interacts with HSP90AA1; this interaction promotes LIMK1 dimerization and subsequent transphosphorylation. Interacts with CDN1C. Interacts with SSH1. Interacts with ROCK1.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LIMK1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for LIMK1 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for LIMK1 Gene

Proteomics data for LIMK1 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for LIMK1 Gene

  • Autophosphorylated (By similarity). Phosphorylated on Thr-508 by ROCK1 and PAK1, resulting in activation. Phosphorylated by PAK4 which increases the ability of LIMK1 to phosphorylate cofilin. Phosphorylated at Ser-323 by MAPKAPK2 during activation of VEGFA-induced signaling, which results in activation of LIMK1 and promotion of actin reorganization, cell migration, and tubule formation of endothelial cells. Dephosphorylated and inactivated by SSH1. Phosphorylated by CDC42BP.
  • Ubiquitinated. Lys-48-linked polyubiquitination by RNF6 leads to proteasomal degradation through the 26S proteasome, modulating LIMK1 levels in the growth cone and its effect on axonal outgrowth. Also polyubiquitinated by RLIM (By similarity).
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for LIMK1 Gene

Domains & Families for LIMK1 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LIMK1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P53667

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

LIMK1_HUMAN :
  • Contains 2 LIM zinc-binding domains.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family.
Domain:
  • Contains 2 LIM zinc-binding domains.
  • Contains 1 PDZ (DHR) domain.
  • Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LIMK1: view

Function for LIMK1 Gene

Molecular function for LIMK1 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
LIM motif containing protein kinase 1,serine only protein kinase,cytosolic,highly expressed in neurons,regulating actin dynamics through phosphorylation of cofilin,which leads to accumulation of F-actin,deleted in Williams syndrome,claimed to be responsible for the cognitive defect of the syndrome,but contradictory evidence,see WBS1
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays an essential role in the regulation of actin filament dynamics. Acts downstream of several Rho family GTPase signal transduction pathways. Activated by upstream kinases including ROCK1, PAK1 and PAK4, which phosphorylate LIMK1 on a threonine residue located in its activation loop. LIMK1 subsequently phosphorylates and inactivates the actin binding/depolymerizing factors cofilin-1/CFL1, cofilin-2/CFL2 and destrin/DSTN, thereby preventing the cleavage of filamentous actin (F-actin), and stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton. In this way LIMK1 regulates several actin-dependent biological processes including cell motility, cell cycle progression, and differentiation. Phosphorylates TPPP on serine residues, thereby promoting microtubule disassembly. Stimulates axonal outgrowth and may be involved in brain development. Isoform 3 has a dominant negative effect on actin cytoskeletal changes. Required for atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2-induced phosphorylation of cofilin (CFL1).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LIMK1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LIMK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0031072 heat shock protein binding IDA 17512523
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LIMK1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LIMK1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for LIMK1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for LIMK1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LIMK1:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LIMK1 Gene

Localization for LIMK1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LIMK1 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Predominantly found in the cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for LIMK1 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LIMK1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
nucleus 4
cytoskeleton 2
plasma membrane 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LIMK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005925 focal adhesion IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LIMK1: view

Pathways & Interactions for LIMK1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LIMK1: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for LIMK1 Gene

Inactivates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LIMK1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007266 Rho protein signal transduction TAS 10436159
GO:0007411 axon guidance TAS --
GO:0030036 actin cytoskeleton organization TAS 10428028
GO:0045087 innate immune response TAS --
GO:0045773 positive regulation of axon extension ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LIMK1: view

Drugs & Compounds for LIMK1 Gene

(8) Drugs for LIMK1 Gene - From: Novoseek, HMDB, DrugBank, and FDA Approved Drugs

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Dabrafenib Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor BRAF kinase inhibitor, Kinase Inhibitors, Mutant BRAF Kinase 70
Tafinlar Approved May 2013 Pharma 0
Adenosine triphosphate Approved Nutra 0

(6) Additional Compounds for LIMK1 Gene - From: Tocris, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
Damnacanthal
477-84-9
LIMKi 3
1338247-35-0
SR 7826
1219728-20-7
T 5601640
924473-59-6

(4) Tocris Compounds for LIMK1 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Damnacanthal Potent, selective p56lck inhibitor; also LIMK1/2 inhibitor 477-84-9
LIMKi 3 Potent LIM kinase inhibitor; antitumor 1338247-35-0
SR 7826 Potent and selective LIMK inhibitor; antitumor 1219728-20-7
T 5601640 Selective LIMK2 inhibitor; antitumor 924473-59-6
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LIMK1: view

Transcripts for LIMK1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for LIMK1 Gene

LIM domain kinase 1:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LIMK1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b ^ 17a ·
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - -
SP3:
SP4: - - -
SP5: - - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7:
SP8: -
SP9:

ExUns: 17b ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19a · 19b · 19c
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:

Relevant External Links for LIMK1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
LIMK1
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
LIMK1

Expression for LIMK1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for LIMK1 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LIMK1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cortex (x4.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LIMK1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Frontal cortex (26.0), Testis (14.9), Spinal cord (14.1), and Ovary (6.4).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for LIMK1 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LIMK1 Gene Hs.647035

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LIMK1 Gene

P53667-LIMK1_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Highest expression in both adult and fetal nervous system. Detected ubiquitously throughout the different regions of adult brain, with highest levels in the cerebral cortex. Expressed to a lesser extent in heart and skeletal muscle.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LIMK1: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LIMK1 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for LIMK1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LIMK1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LIMK1 35
  • 92.12 (n)
  • 97.68 (a)
LIMK1 36
  • 98 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LIMK1 35
  • 90.01 (n)
  • 94.13 (a)
LIMK1 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Limk1 35
  • 88 (n)
  • 95.21 (a)
Limk1 16
Limk1 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LIMK1 35
  • 99.64 (n)
  • 100 (a)
LIMK1 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Limk1 35
  • 88 (n)
  • 95.36 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia LIMK1 36
  • 90 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LIMK1 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LIMK1 35
  • 82.04 (n)
  • 84.52 (a)
LIMK1 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LIMK1 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia limk1 35
  • 69.65 (n)
  • 77.04 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia xlimk1 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii limk1a 35
  • 71.62 (n)
  • 73.87 (a)
limk1a 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToMany
limk1b 36
  • 56 (a)
OneToMany
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP011710 35
  • 32.92 (n)
  • 15.85 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta LIMK1 35
  • 56.67 (n)
  • 50.74 (a)
LIMK1 36
  • 23 (a)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea K09B11.5 36
  • 19 (a)
ManyToMany
kin-21 36
  • 19 (a)
ManyToMany
T25B9.5 36
  • 17 (a)
ManyToMany
Y52D5A.2 36
  • 18 (a)
ManyToMany
Y69E1A.3 36
  • 17 (a)
ManyToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 41 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for LIMK1:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for LIMK1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for LIMK1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for LIMK1 (if available)

Paralogs for LIMK1 Gene

Paralogs for LIMK1 Gene

(16) SIMAP similar genes for LIMK1 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for LIMK1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LIMK1: view

Variants for LIMK1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LIMK1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 07 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs35827364 - 74,099,199(+) ACCGG(C/G)CTGTG reference, missense
rs55661242 - 74,106,102(+) AACCA(A/G)CCGCC reference, missense
rs55679316 - 74,109,017(+) GCTCC(A/G)GGGCA reference, missense
rs178412 - 74,121,007(-) TGGGG(A/T)AGAAG reference, missense
rs222996 -- 74,115,965(-) TGAAC(C/T)ACTCA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LIMK1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv888374 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv888375 CNV Loss 21882294
esv1010108 CNV Deletion 20482838
esv1038833 CNV Deletion 17803354
nsv366821 CNV Loss 16902084
nsv464563 CNV Gain 19166990
nsv831030 CNV Gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for LIMK1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 15.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.88; 48.47% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for LIMK1 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
LIMK1
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
LIMK1

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LIMK1 Gene

Disorders for LIMK1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for LIMK1 Gene - From: Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
williams-beuren syndrome
  • fanconi schlesinger syndrome
supravalvar aortic stenosis
  • supravalvular aortic stenosis
intracranial aneurysm
  • brain aneurysm
aortic valve disease 1
  • aortic valve disease 2
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LIMK1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

LIMK1_HUMAN
  • Note=LIMK1 is located in the Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) critical region. WBS results from a hemizygous deletion of several genes on chromosome 7q11.23, thought to arise as a consequence of unequal crossing over between highly homologous low-copy repeat sequences flanking the deleted region.

Relevant External Links for LIMK1

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
LIMK1
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
LIMK1
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
LIMK1
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LIMK1: view

No data available for Genatlas for LIMK1 Gene

Publications for LIMK1 Gene

  1. Identification of genes from a 500-kb region at 7q11.23 that is commonly deleted in Williams syndrome patients. (PMID: 8812460) Osborne L.R. … Tsui L.-C. (Genomics 1996) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. DGCR6L, a novel PAK4 interaction protein, regulates PAK4-mediated migration of human gastric cancer cell via LIMK1. (PMID: 19778628) Li X. … Li F. (Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2010) 3 23
  3. LIM-kinase is critical for the mesenchymal-to-amoeboid cell morphological transition in 3D matrices. (PMID: 20100465) Mishima T. … Mizuno K. (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2010) 3 23
  4. Coagulation Factor Xa inhibits cancer cell migration via LIMK1-mediated cofilin inactivation. (PMID: 20347121) Borensztajn K. … Spek C.A. (Thromb. Res. 2010) 3 23
  5. Inefficient search of large-scale space in Williams syndrome: further insights on the role of LIMK1 deletion in deficits of spatial cognition. (PMID: 19662944) Smith A.D. … Karmiloff-Smith A. (Perception 2009) 3 23

Products for LIMK1 Gene

Sources for LIMK1 Gene

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