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Aliases for KRT16 Gene

Aliases for KRT16 Gene

  • Keratin 16, Type I 2 3
  • Focal Non-Epidermolytic Palmoplantar Keratoderma 2 3
  • Cytokeratin-16 3 4
  • Keratin-16 3 4
  • FNEPPK 3 6
  • KRT16A 3 4
  • CK-16 3 4
  • PC1 3 6
  • K16 3 4
  • Keratin, Type I Cytoskeletal 16 3
  • Cytokeratin 16 3
  • Keratin 16 2
  • NEPPK 3
  • CK16 3
  • K1CP 3

External Ids for KRT16 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for KRT16 Gene

  • GC17M020580
  • GC17M041881
  • GC17M039544
  • GC17M040139
  • GC17M037019
  • GC17M039766
  • GC17M035529

Summaries for KRT16 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for KRT16 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. Most of the type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains and are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21. This keratin has been coexpressed with keratin 14 in a number of epithelial tissues, including esophagus, tongue, and hair follicles. Mutations in this gene are associated with type 1 pachyonychia congenita, non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and unilateral palmoplantar verrucous nevus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for KRT16 Gene

KRT16 (Keratin 16, Type I) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with KRT16 include pachyonychia congenita 1 and palmoplantar keratoderma, nonepidermolytic, focal. Among its related pathways are Cytoskeleton remodeling Neurofilaments. GO annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of this gene is KRT34.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRT16 Gene

  • Epidermis-specific type I keratin that plays a key role in skin. Acts as a regulator of innate immunity in response to skin barrier breach: required for some inflammatory checkpoint for the skin barrier maintenance.

Gene Wiki entry for KRT16 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for KRT16 Gene

Genomics for KRT16 Gene

Regulatory Elements for KRT16 Gene

Genomic Location for KRT16 Gene

41,609,778 bp from pter
41,615,899 bp from pter
6,122 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for KRT16 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for KRT16 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for KRT16 Gene

Proteins for KRT16 Gene

  • Protein details for KRT16 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 16
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K488
    • P30654
    • Q16402
    • Q9UBG8

    Protein attributes for KRT16 Gene

    473 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    51268 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of a type I and a type II keratin. KRT16 associates with KRT6 isomers (KRT6A or KRT6B) (By similarity). Interacts with TCHP (PubMed:15731013). Interacts with TRADD (By similarity).
    • There are two types of cytoskeletal and microfibrillar keratin, I (acidic) and II (neutral to basic) (40-55 and 56-70 kDa, respectively)

neXtProt entry for KRT16 Gene

Proteomics data for KRT16 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for KRT16 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for KRT16 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for KRT16 Gene

Domains for KRT16 Gene

Gene Families for KRT16 Gene

  • IFF1 :Intermediate filaments type I, keratins (acidic)

Protein Domains for KRT16 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for KRT16 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P08779
  • Belongs to the intermediate filament family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with KRT16: view

Function for KRT16 Gene

Molecular function for KRT16 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: keratin 16,type I,hair follicle,nail bed,palmoplantar skin,suprabasal orogenital mucosal keratinocytes,dimerizing with KRT6A,KRT6B
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Epidermis-specific type I keratin that plays a key role in skin. Acts as a regulator of innate immunity in response to skin barrier breach: required for some inflammatory checkpoint for the skin barrier maintenance.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for KRT16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005198 structural molecule activity --
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton NAS 2451124
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15731013
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRT16: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with KRT16: view

Animal Models for KRT16 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for KRT16:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for KRT16

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for KRT16 Gene

Localization for KRT16 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for KRT16 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for KRT16 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
cytosol 3
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1
extracellular 1
golgi apparatus 1
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for KRT16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 21630459
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton IDA 20403371
GO:0005882 intermediate filament NAS 2451124
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome IDA 19199708
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRT16: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRT16 Gene

Pathways for KRT16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with KRT16: view

Pathways by source for KRT16 Gene

1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for KRT16 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for KRT16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002009 morphogenesis of an epithelium ISS --
GO:0006954 inflammatory response ISS --
GO:0007010 cytoskeleton organization NAS 2451124
GO:0007568 aging IDA 21916889
GO:0008283 cell proliferation TAS 8595410
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with KRT16: view

Compounds for KRT16 Gene

(18) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for KRT16 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
calcipotriol 72.1 1
ttnpb 67.1 1
dithranol 57.9 1
retinoid 49.8 4
clobetasol propionate 41.7 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with KRT16: view

Transcripts for KRT16 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for KRT16 Gene

Unigene Clusters for KRT16 Gene

Keratin 16:
Representative Sequences:

miRNA Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for KRT16

Primer Products

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for KRT16 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for KRT16 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for KRT16 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for KRT16 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for KRT16 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (17.8), Skin - Not Sun Exposed (Suprapubic) (8.7), Minor Salivary Gland (7.7), Vagina (7.0), Cervix - Ectocervix (6.2), and Skin - Sun Exposed (Lower leg) (4.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for KRT16 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for KRT16 Gene Hs.655160

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for KRT16 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in the hair follicle, nail bed and in mucosal stratified squamous epithelia and, suprabasally, in oral epithelium and palmoplantar epidermis. Also found in luminal cells of sweat and mammary gland ducts
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with KRT16: view

In Situ Assay Products

Orthologs for KRT16 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for KRT16 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia KRT16 35
  • 98.32 (n)
  • 98.69 (a)
KRT16 36
  • 100 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia KRT16 35
  • 84.71 (n)
  • 78.95 (a)
KRT16 36
  • 79 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 70 (a)
KRT16 35
  • 90.37 (n)
  • 92.77 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Krt16 35
  • 82.78 (n)
  • 83.44 (a)
Krt16 16
Krt16 36
  • 85 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 75 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 80 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Krt16 35
  • 85.22 (n)
  • 85.22 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 36
  • 65 (a)
KRT14 36
  • 67 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 66 (a)
-- 36
  • 65 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.25556 35
Species with no ortholog for KRT16:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for KRT16 Gene

Gene Tree for KRT16 (if available)
Gene Tree for KRT16 (if available)

Paralogs for KRT16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with KRT16: view

Variants for KRT16 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for KRT16 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1133106 -- 41,612,567(-) CTGCC(C/G)TGCCC missense, reference
rs1809198 -- 41,614,381(-) ACACT(A/G)CAGAG upstream-variant-2KB
rs2100509 -- 41,611,584(+) GGACC(A/G)CCCCA intron-variant
rs2874329 -- 41,613,619(+) CCCTT(C/T)CCCGA upstream-variant-2KB
rs4344804 -- 41,609,537(+) AAGGA(A/C)AATAT downstream-variant-500B

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for KRT16 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv961e1 CNV Complex 17122850
dgv962e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv827992 CNV Gain 20364138
esv34903 CNV Gain 17911159

Relevant External Links for KRT16 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for KRT16 Gene

Disorders for KRT16 Gene

(2) OMIM Diseases for KRT16 Gene (148067)


  • Pachyonychia congenita 1 (PC1) [MIM:167200]: An autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia characterized by hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in onchyogryposis (thickening and increase in curvature of the nail), palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, and oral leukokeratosis. Hyperhidrosis of the hands and feet is usually present. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10521820, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10606845, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10839714, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11359398, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11886499, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16250206, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17719747, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21160496, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21326300, ECO:0000269 PubMed:22668561, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24118415, ECO:0000269 PubMed:7539673}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Keratoderma, palmoplantar, non-epidermolytic, focal (FNEPPK) [MIM:613000]: A dermatological disorder characterized by non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma limited to the pressure points on the balls of the feet, with later mild involvement on the palms. Oral, genital and follicular keratotic lesions are often present. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8595410}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Unilateral palmoplantar verrucous nevus (UPVN) [MIM:144200]: UPVN is characterized by a localized epidermolytic hyperkeratosis in parts of the right palm and the right sole, following the lines of Blaschko. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10844556}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Note=KRT16 and KRT17 are coexpressed only in pathological situations such as metaplasias and carcinomas of the uterine cervix and in psoriasis vulgaris.

(33) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for KRT16 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
pachyonychia congenita, type 1 92.7 3
psoriasis 81.3 16
keratoderma palmoplantar 76.8 1
neppk 75.3 1
pachyonychia congenita, type 2 74.9 2

Relevant External Links for KRT16

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with KRT16: view

Publications for KRT16 Gene

  1. Novel mutations in keratin 16 gene underly focal nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (NEPPK) in two families. (PMID: 8595410) Shamsheer M.K. … Leigh I.M. (Hum. Mol. Genet. 1995) 3 4 23
  2. Keratin 16 and keratin 17 mutations cause pachyonychia congenita. (PMID: 7539673) McLean W.H.I. … Munro C.S. (Nat. Genet. 1995) 3 4 23
  3. Novel proline substitution mutations in keratin 16 in two cases of pachyonychia congenita type 1. (PMID: 10606845) Smith F.J.D. … McLean W.H.I. (Br. J. Dermatol. 1999) 3 4 23
  4. Cloning of multiple keratin 16 genes facilitates prenatal diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita type 1. (PMID: 10521820) Smith F.J. … McLean W.H.I. (Prenat. Diagn. 1999) 3 4 23
  5. Novel keratin 16 mutations and protein expression studies in pachyonychia congenita type 1 and focal palmoplantar keratoderma. (PMID: 10839714) Smith F.J. … McLean W.H.I. (Exp. Dermatol. 2000) 3 4 23

Products for KRT16 Gene

Sources for KRT16 Gene

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