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Aliases for AREG Gene

Aliases for AREG Gene

  • Amphiregulin 2 3
  • Colorectum Cell-Derived Growth Factor 3 4
  • Schwannoma-Derived Growth Factor 2 3
  • Amphiregulin B 2 3
  • CRDGF 3 4
  • SDGF 3 4
  • AR 3 4
  • AREGB 3

External Ids for AREG Gene

Previous Symbols for AREG Gene

  • SDGF

Summaries for AREG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for AREG Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor family. It is an autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for astrocytes, Schwann cells and fibroblasts. It is related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). The protein interacts with the EGF/TGF-alpha receptor to promote the growth of normal epithelial cells, and it inhibits the growth of certain aggressive carcinoma cell lines. It also functions in mammary gland, oocyte and bone tissue development. This gene is associated with a psoriasis-like skin phenotype, and is also associated with other pathological disorders, including various types of cancers and inflammatory conditions. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

GeneCards Summary for AREG Gene

AREG (Amphiregulin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AREG include prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer. Among its related pathways are Pathways in cancer and NF-KappaB Family Pathway. An important paralog of this gene is HBEGF.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AREG Gene

  • Ligand of the EGF receptor/EGFR. Autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for a broad range of target cells including astrocytes, Schwann cells and fibroblasts

Gene Wiki entry for AREG Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for AREG Gene

Genomics for AREG Gene

Genomic Location for AREG Gene

74,445,134 bp from pter
74,455,009 bp from pter
9,876 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for AREG Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for AREG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for AREG Gene

Regulatory Elements for AREG Gene

Proteins for AREG Gene

  • Protein details for AREG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5U026

    Protein attributes for AREG Gene

    252 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    27895 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • The immature precursor interacts with CNIH.
    • AR is a protein containing cysteines in disulfide linkage(s) that are essential for its biological activity. AR may contain oligosaccharides and/or lipid moieties that are not obligatory for the biological activity

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for AREG Gene

neXtProt entry for AREG Gene

Proteomics data for AREG Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for AREG Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation at Asn30, Ser41, Thr52, Ser53, Asn113, Asn119, and Thr169

Other Protein References for AREG Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for AREG Gene

Domains for AREG Gene

Gene Families for AREG Gene


Protein Domains for AREG Gene


  • Contains 1 EGF-like domain.:
    • P15514
  • Belongs to the amphiregulin family.:
    • P15514
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with AREG: view

Function for AREG Gene

Molecular function for AREG Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: amphiregulin,27.9kDa,bifunctional protein possessing an epithelial cell growth regulator (EGF family) and a tumor-inhibitory activity
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Ligand of the EGF receptor/EGFR. Autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for a broad range of target cells including astrocytes, Schwann cells and fibroblasts
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction: By phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for AREG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IEA --
GO:0005154 epidermal growth factor receptor binding IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 19740107
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AREG: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with AREG: view

Animal Models for AREG Gene

MGI Knock Outs for AREG:

miRNA for AREG Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target AREG

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for AREG Gene

Localization for AREG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AREG Gene

Membrane; Single-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for AREG Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for AREG gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 4
nucleus 2
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for AREG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 12743035
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 12743035
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AREG: view

Pathways for AREG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with AREG: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for AREG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007173 epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway IDA 12743035
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA 12743035
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 2466334
GO:0008283 cell proliferation TAS 2466334
GO:0008284 positive regulation of cell proliferation IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with AREG: view

Compounds for AREG Gene

(51) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for AREG Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
ag 1478 75.1 5
gefitinib 72.8 33
pd153035 72.7 1
8-chloro-camp 63.3 1
cetuximab 61.1 9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with AREG: view

Transcripts for AREG Gene

mRNA/cDNA for AREG Gene

Unigene Clusters for AREG Gene

Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for AREG Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for AREG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for AREG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for AREG Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for AREG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (7.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for AREG Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for AREG Gene Hs.270833

genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with AREG: view

Orthologs for AREG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for AREG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia AREG 36
  • 99.07 (n)
  • 98.02 (a)
  • 80 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 78 (a)
LOC538751 36
  • 85.77 (n)
  • 79.67 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 83 (a)
LOC475176 36
  • 86.75 (n)
  • 83.33 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Areg 36
  • 78.1 (n)
  • 72.38 (a)
Areg 16
Areg 37
  • 71 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 52 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 37
  • 53 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Areg 36
  • 76.19 (n)
  • 71.85 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves AREG 37
  • 45 (a)
  • 59.15 (n)
  • 51.22 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 37
  • 39 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100145251 36
  • 54.9 (n)
  • 42.65 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii AREG 37
  • 22 (a)
Species with no ortholog for AREG:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for AREG Gene

Gene Tree for AREG (if available)
Gene Tree for AREG (if available)

Paralogs for AREG Gene

Paralogs for AREG Gene

Selected SIMAP similar genes for AREG Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with AREG: view

Variants for AREG Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for AREG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs1246409 -- 74,454,705(+) AGCTT(A/G)TCTGT intron-variant
rs1691264 -- 74,449,526(+) agatc(C/T)cttga intron-variant
rs2007969 -- 74,444,689(+) TTCTA(A/T)CTCAA upstream-variant-2KB
rs2291717 -- 74,450,576(+) TGGGA(A/G)GTTAA intron-variant
rs2643003 -- 74,448,257(-) TATGC(A/G)ATTTT intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for AREG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv525980 CNV Gain 19592680
esv2664200 CNV Deletion 23128226
dgv94n16 CNV Insertion 17901297

Relevant External Links for AREG Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

Disorders for AREG Gene

(2) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for AREG Gene

(72) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for AREG Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
breast cancer 50 47
ovarian cystadenoma 49.6 1
nsclc 49.3 27
tumors 48.6 80
colon carcinoma 44.4 11

Relevant External Links for AREG

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Tumor Gene Database (TGDB):
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with AREG: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for AREG Gene

Publications for AREG Gene

  1. Colorectum cell-derived growth factor (CRDGF) is homologous to amphiregulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor family. (PMID: 1333777) Culouscou J.-M. … Shoyab M. (Growth Factors 1992) 3 4 23
  2. The amphiregulin gene encodes a novel epidermal growth factor-related protein with tumor-inhibitory activity. (PMID: 2325643) Plowman G.D. … Shoyab M. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1990) 3 4 23
  3. A heparin sulfate-regulated human keratinocyte autocrine factor is similar or identical to amphiregulin. (PMID: 2017164) Cook P.W. … Shipley G.D. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 1991) 3 4 23
  4. Induction and expression of cyclin D3 in human pancreatic cancer. (PMID: 11469683) Ebert M.P. … Malfertheiner P. (J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 2001) 3 23
  5. A functional screen for genes inducing epidermal growth factor autonomy of human mammary epithelial cells confirms the role of amphiregulin. (PMID: 11494130) Berquin I.M. … Ethier S.P. (Oncogene 2001) 3 23

Products for AREG Gene

Sources for AREG Gene

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