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Aliases for APOD Gene

Aliases for APOD Gene

  • Apolipoprotein D 2 3
  • Apo-D 3 4
  • ApoD 4

External Ids for APOD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for APOD Gene

  • GC03P194400
  • GC03M198737
  • GC03M9E0110
  • GC00M9Z0110
  • GC03M9G0110
  • GC03M196776
  • GC03M195295
  • GC03M192666

Summaries for APOD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for APOD Gene

  • This gene encodes a component of high density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein superfamily of carrier proteins, also known as lipocalins. This glycoprotein is closely associated with the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase - an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

GeneCards Summary for APOD Gene

APOD (Apolipoprotein D) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with APOD include ganglioglioma and gynecomastia. Among its related pathways are Cholesterol and Sphingolipids transport / Recycling to plasma membrane in lung (normal and CF). GO annotations related to this gene include cholesterol binding and lipid transporter activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for APOD Gene

  • APOD occurs in the macromolecular complex with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. It is probably involved in the transport and binding of bilin. Appears to be able to transport a variety of ligands in a number of different contexts

Gene Wiki entry for APOD Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for APOD Gene

Genomics for APOD Gene

Regulatory Elements for APOD Gene

Genomic Location for APOD Gene

195,568,702 bp from pter
195,584,205 bp from pter
15,504 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for APOD Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for APOD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for APOD Gene

Proteins for APOD Gene

  • Protein details for APOD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Apolipoprotein D
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R579
    • D3DNW6
    • Q6IBG6

    Protein attributes for APOD Gene

    189 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21276 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer. In plasma, also exists as a disulfide-linked heterodimer with APOA2.
    • APOD is primarily localized in HDL (60-65%), with most of the remainder in VHDL and only trace amounts in VLDL and LDL

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for APOD Gene

neXtProt entry for APOD Gene

Proteomics data for APOD Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for APOD Gene

  • N-glycosylatd. N-glycan heterogeneity at Asn-65: Hex5HexNAc4 (major) and Hex6HexNAc5 (minor); at Asn-98: Hex5HexNAc4 (minor), dHex1Hex5HexNAc4 (major), dHex1Hex6HexNAc5 (minor) and dHex1Hex7HexNAc6 (minor).
  • Glycosylation at Asn65 and Asn98
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for APOD Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for APOD Gene

Domains for APOD Gene

Gene Families for APOD Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for APOD Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • P05090
  • Belongs to the calycin superfamily. Lipocalin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with APOD: view

Function for APOD Gene

Molecular function for APOD Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry: apolipoprotein D (lipocalin family,Kernel group),widely distributed,occuring in macromolecular complexes,predominantly with APOA2 in HDL and APOB-100 in LDL and VLDL,identical to gross-cystic disease fluid progesterone/pregnelonone binding protein representing overhalf of the protein component of breast cyst fluid
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: APOD occurs in the macromolecular complex with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. It is probably involved in the transport and binding of bilin. Appears to be able to transport a variety of ligands in a number of different contexts

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for APOD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005215 transporter activity --
GO:0005319 lipid transporter activity NAS 3453108
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
GO:0008289 lipid binding --
GO:0015485 cholesterol binding IDA 9278274
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APOD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with APOD: view

Animal Models for APOD Gene

MGI Knock Outs for APOD:

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for APOD Gene

Localization for APOD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for APOD Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for APOD Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for APOD gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 4
endoplasmic reticulum 4
cytoskeleton 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for APOD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region NAS 14718574
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 16502470
GO:0005622 intracellular --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum ISS --
GO:0022626 cytosolic ribosome ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APOD: view

Pathways for APOD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with APOD: view

Pathways by source for APOD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for APOD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000302 response to reactive oxygen species IDA 18419796
GO:0001525 angiogenesis NAS 21705670
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IDA 19176353
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IDA 19176353
GO:0006810 transport --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APOD: view

Compounds for APOD Gene

(22) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for APOD Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
arachidonic acid 52.8 25
progesterone 48.1 16
lipid 45.5 27
dihydrotestosterone 42.6 2
cholesterol 38.1 20
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with APOD: view

Transcripts for APOD Gene

Unigene Clusters for APOD Gene

Apolipoprotein D:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for APOD Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for APOD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for APOD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for APOD Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for APOD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nerve - Tibial (13.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for APOD Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for APOD Gene Hs.522555

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for APOD Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in liver, intestine, pancreas, kidney, placenta, adrenal, spleen, fetal brain tissue and tears
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with APOD: view

Orthologs for APOD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for APOD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia APOD 35
  • 99.12 (n)
  • 98.41 (a)
  • 98 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia APOD 35
  • 87.05 (n)
  • 82.29 (a)
  • 81 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia APOD 35
  • 84.62 (n)
  • 80.47 (a)
  • 70 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Apod 35
  • 78.74 (n)
  • 73.56 (a)
Apod 16
Apod 36
  • 72 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia APOD 36
  • 72 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia APOD 36
  • 63 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Apod 35
  • 77.2 (n)
  • 72.41 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves APOD 35
  • 64.34 (n)
  • 59.88 (a)
  • 57 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii apod 36
  • 45 (a)
APOD (1 of 3) 36
  • 49 (a)
APOD (3 of 3) 36
  • 44 (a)
zgc:123339 35
  • 58.04 (n)
  • 51.18 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP009281 35
  • 52.61 (n)
  • 44.58 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta GLaz 36
  • 25 (a)
NLaz 35
  • 49.9 (n)
  • 40.94 (a)
NLaz 36
  • 32 (a)
Species with no ortholog for APOD:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for APOD Gene

Gene Tree for APOD (if available)
Gene Tree for APOD (if available)

Paralogs for APOD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with APOD: view

No data available for Paralogs for APOD Gene

Variants for APOD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for APOD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs4651 -- 195,568,831(-) CCCCC(C/G)CCATA utr-variant-3-prime
rs5952 - 195,579,418(-) CCTCT(C/T)CGGTG missense, reference
rs5953 -- 195,579,348(-) TTTGA(C/T)GTGAA reference, synonymous-codon
rs5954 - 195,569,126(-) GCCAT(C/T)GGCAC reference, missense
rs5955 - 195,568,937(-) AATGA(A/C)GGTCA missense, reference

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for APOD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv878138 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv1549e1 CNV Complex 17122850
nsv428430 CNV Gain+Loss 18775914
nsv878146 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for APOD Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for APOD Gene

Disorders for APOD Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

MalaCards: The human disease database. (8) Diseases for APOD Gene including...

Search for APOD Gene in MalaCards »

(38) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for APOD Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
breast male carcinoma 57.1 2
pilocytic astrocytoma 53.8 6
breast cysts 49.5 2
niemann-picks disease type c 44.7 2
breast cancer 40.5 43

Relevant External Links for APOD

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with APOD: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for APOD Gene

Publications for APOD Gene

  1. Apolipoprotein D is the major protein component in cyst fluid from women with human breast gross cystic disease. (PMID: 2244881) Balbin M. … Lopez-Otin C. (Biochem. J. 1990) 3 4 23
  2. Structure of human apolipoprotein D: locations of the intermolecular and intramolecular disulfide links. (PMID: 7918467) Yang C.-Y. … Pownall H.J. (Biochemistry 1994) 3 4 23
  3. The human lacrimal gland synthesizes apolipoprotein D mRNA in addition to tear prealbumin mRNA, both species encoding members of the lipocalin superfamily. (PMID: 8549691) Holzfeind P. … Redl B. (Exp. Eye Res. 1995) 3 4 23
  4. Genetic variation in apolipoprotein D affects the risk of Alzheimer disease in African-Americans. (PMID: 12497622) Desai P.P. … Kamboh M.I. (Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2003) 3 23 48
  5. Apolipoprotein D levels are elevated in prefrontal cortex of subjects with Alzheimer's disease: no relation to apolipoprotein E expression or genotype. (PMID: 12873803) Thomas E.A. … Martins R.N. (Biol. Psychiatry 2003) 3 23 48

Products for APOD Gene

  • Pathway & Disease-focused RT² Profiler PCR Arrays
    • Lipoprotein Signaling & Cholesterol Metabolism in human,mouse,rat
  • QIAGEN qRT-PCR Assays for microRNAs that regulate APOD
    • QuantiTect SYBR Green Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Pre-validated RT² qPCR Primer Assay in human,mouse,rat
    • QuantiFast Probe-based Assays in human,mouse,rat
    • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for APOD
    • Block miRNA regulation of APOD using miScript Target Protectors

    Sources for APOD Gene

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