Aliases for XIAP Gene
External Ids for XIAP Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for XIAP Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for XIAP Gene
This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of apoptotic suppressor proteins. Members of this family share a conserved motif termed, baculovirus IAP repeat, which is necessary for their anti-apoptotic function. This protein functions through binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2 and inhibits apoptosis induced by menadione, a potent inducer of free radicals, and interleukin 1-beta converting enzyme. This protein also inhibits at least two members of the caspase family of cell-death proteases, caspase-3 and caspase-7. Mutations in this gene are the cause of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 2 and 11.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
GeneCards Summary for XIAP Gene
XIAP (X-Linked Inhibitor Of Apoptosis, E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with XIAP include lymphoproliferative syndrome, x-linked, 2 and lymphoproliferative syndrome, x-linked, 1. Among its related pathways are Pathways in cancer and Akt Signaling. GO annotations related to this gene include ubiquitin-protein transferase activity and cysteine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity involved in apoptotic process. An important paralog of this gene is NAIP.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for XIAP Gene
Multi-functional protein which regulates not only caspases and apoptosis, but also modulates inflammatory signaling and immunity, copper homeostasis, mitogenic kinase signaling, cell proliferation, as well as cell invasion and metastasis. Acts as a direct caspase inhibitor. Directly bind to the active site pocket of CASP3 and CASP7 and obstructs substrate entry. Inactivates CASP9 by keeping it in a monomeric, inactive state. Acts as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase regulating NF-kappa-B signaling and the target proteins for its E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity include: RIPK1, CASP3, CASP7, CASP8, CASP9, MAP3K2/MEKK2, DIABLO/SMAC, AIFM1, CCS and BIRC5/survivin. Ubiquitinion of CCS leads to enhancement of its chaperone activity toward its physiologic target, SOD1, rather than proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitinion of MAP3K2/MEKK2 and AIFM1 does not lead to proteasomal degradation. Plays a role in copper homeostasis by ubiquitinationg COMMD1 and promoting its proteasomal degradation. Can also function as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase of the NEDD8 conjugation pathway, targeting effector caspases for neddylation and inactivation. Regulates the BMP signaling pathway and the SMAD and MAP3K7/TAK1 dependent pathways leading to NF-kappa-B and JNK activation. Acts as an important regulator of innate immune signaling via regulation of Nodlike receptors (NLRs). Protects cells from spontaneous formation of the ripoptosome, a large multi-protein complex that has the capability to kill cancer cells in a caspase-dependent and caspase-independent manner. Suppresses ripoptosome formation by ubiquitinating RIPK1 and CASP8. Acts as a positive regulator of Wnt signaling and ubiquitinates TLE1, TLE2, TLE3, TLE4 and AES. Ubiquitination of TLE3 results in inhibition of its interaction with TCF7L2/TCF4 thereby allowing efficient recruitment and binding of the transcriptional coactivator beta-catenin to TCF7L2/TCF4 that is required to initiate a Wnt-specific transcriptional program.
Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAPs) are a family of proteins that are the major regulators of apoptosis through their interaction with the various components of the apoptotic signalling cascades. Originally discovered in baculovirus, the human homologues are sometimes described as baculovirus IAP repeat containing (BIRC) proteins. There are a number of different IAPs including neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP or BIRC1), cellular IAPs (c-IAP-1 and c-IAP-2, or BIRC2 and BIRC3 respectively), X-chromosome linked IAP (XIAP or BIRC4) and survivin (BIRC5). cIAP-1 and 2 function through interaction with TNF receptors and by binding to the mitochondrial protein, SMAC, preventing it binding to XIAP. Thought to be the most potent apoptosis suppressor, XIAP, directly binds and inhibits caspases -3, -7 and -9. Survivin, which also binds to several caspases, is up-regulated in a many tumour cell types.