Aliases for HRH1 Gene
External Ids for HRH1 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HRH1 Gene
Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. It mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, the increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, the release of catecholamine from adrenal medulla, and neurotransmission in the central nervous system. It has been associated with multiple processes, including memory and learning, circadian rhythm, and thermoregulation. It is also known to contribute to the pathophysiology of allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, anaphylaxis and allergic rhinitis. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
GeneCards Summary for HRH1 Gene
HRH1 (Histamine Receptor H1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HRH1 include cholinergic urticaria and chronic rhinitis. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Signaling by GPCR. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and histamine receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is CHRM4.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HRH1 Gene
In peripheral tissues, the H1 subclass of histamine receptors mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, and catecholamine release from adrenal medulla, as well as mediating neurotransmission in the central nervous system
Histamine H1 receptors are Galphaq/11-protein-coupled receptors that mediate allergic responses. These receptors are expressed in a wide variety of tissues including the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, airway and vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, chondrocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, dendritic cells, T and B lymphocytes, adrenal medulla, and the cardiovascular and genitourinary systems. H1 receptor activation induces a wide range of biological responses due to their widespread distribution. In smooth muscle, H1 activation increases tension and the contractile response, and in vascular endothelial cells receptor activation increases cell permeability. In the adrenal medulla, histamine acting at H1 receptors stimulates both adrenalin and noradrenalin release. Furthermore, H1 activation induces prostacyclin and platelet-activating factor synthesis, promotes von Willebrand factor and nitric oxide release, liberates arachidonic acid from phospholipids, and causes vasodilation of capillaries and arterioles. At a physiological level, H1 receptors are involved in a wide array of processes including thermal regulation, memory and learning, and control of the sleep-wake cycle, food intake, and emotional and aggressive behaviors. Histamine acting through the H1 receptor has proinflammatory effects, and is involved in the development of various aspects of the antigen-specific immune response. Activation of these receptors triggers maturation of dendritic cells and modulates the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells. H1 receptors are involved in the pathological process of allergy, including allergic rhinits, atopic dermatitis, anaphylaxis and asthma, and also have a role in autoimmune diseases and malignancy.