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Aliases for HRAS Gene

Aliases for HRAS Gene

  • Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 3 5
  • V-Ha-Ras Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 2 3
  • Transforming Protein P21 3 4
  • C-H-RAS 3 4
  • P21ras 3 4
  • HRAS1 3 4
  • Ras Family Small GTP Binding Protein H-Ras 3
  • Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncoprotein 3
  • Transformation Gene: Oncogene HAMSV 3
  • GTP- And GDP-Binding Peptide B 3
  • C-Ras-Ki-2 Activated Oncogene 3
  • Ha-Ras1 Proto-Oncoprotein 3
  • C-Has/Bas P21 Protein 3
  • P19 H-RasIDX Protein 3
  • C-BAS/HAS 3
  • C-HA-RAS1 3
  • H-RASIDX 3
  • H-Ras-1 4
  • Ha-Ras 4
  • HAMSV 3
  • RASH1 3
  • CTLO 3

External Ids for HRAS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HRAS Gene

  • HRAS1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HRAS Gene

  • GC11P001100
  • GC11P001123
  • GC11P000664
  • GC11M000346

Summaries for HRAS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HRAS Gene

  • This gene belongs to the Ras oncogene family, whose members are related to the transforming genes of mammalian sarcoma retroviruses. The products encoded by these genes function in signal transduction pathways. These proteins can bind GTP and GDP, and they have intrinsic GTPase activity. This protein undergoes a continuous cycle of de- and re-palmitoylation, which regulates its rapid exchange between the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus. Mutations in this gene cause Costello syndrome, a disease characterized by increased growth at the prenatal stage, growth deficiency at the postnatal stage, predisposition to tumor formation, mental retardation, skin and musculoskeletal abnormalities, distinctive facial appearance and cardiovascular abnormalities. Defects in this gene are implicated in a variety of cancers, including bladder cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Multiple transcript variants, which encode different isoforms, have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for HRAS Gene

HRAS (Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with HRAS include Costello Syndrome and Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims Syndrome, Somatic Mosaic. Among its related pathways are Glioma and Development VEGF signaling via VEGFR2 - generic cascades. GO annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and protein C-terminus binding. An important paralog of this gene is MRAS.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HRAS Gene

  • Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity.

Gene Wiki entry for HRAS Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HRAS Gene

Genomics for HRAS Gene

Regulatory Elements for HRAS Gene

Enhancers for HRAS Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around HRAS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for HRAS Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around HRAS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for HRAS Gene

532,242 bp from pter
537,287 bp from pter
5,046 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for HRAS Gene

Genes around HRAS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HRAS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HRAS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HRAS Gene

Proteins for HRAS Gene

  • Protein details for HRAS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    GTPase HRas
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B5BUA0
    • Q14080
    • Q6FHV9
    • Q9BR65
    • Q9UCE2

    Protein attributes for HRAS Gene

    189 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21298 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • In its GTP-bound form interacts with PLCE1. Interacts with TBC1D10C. Interacts with RGL3. Interacts with HSPD1. Found in a complex with at least BRAF, HRAS, MAP2K1, MAPK3 and RGS14. Interacts (active GTP-bound form) with RGS14 (via RBD 1 domain) (By similarity). Forms a signaling complex with RASGRP1 and DGKZ. Interacts with RASSF5. Interacts with PDE6D. Interacts with IKZF3. Interacts with RACK1. Interacts with PIK3CG; the interaction is required for membrane recruitment and beta-gamma G protein dimer-dependent activation of the PI3K gamma complex PIK3CG:PIK3R6 (By similarity). Interacts with RAPGEF2.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for HRAS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for HRAS Gene


neXtProt entry for HRAS Gene

Proteomics data for HRAS Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HRAS Gene

  • Acetylation at Lys-104 prevents interaction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs).
  • Palmitoylated by the ZDHHC9-GOLGA7 complex. A continuous cycle of de- and re-palmitoylation regulates rapid exchange between plasma membrane and Golgi.
  • S-nitrosylated; critical for redox regulation. Important for stimulating guanine nucleotide exchange. No structural perturbation on nitrosylation.
  • The covalent modification of cysteine by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin-J2 is autocatalytic and reversible. It may occur as an alternative to other cysteine modifications, such as S-nitrosylation and S-palmitoylation.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HRAS Gene

Domains & Families for HRAS Gene

Gene Families for HRAS Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HRAS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
  • Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HRAS: view

Function for HRAS Gene

Molecular function for HRAS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
Harvey rat sarcoma viral (v-Ha-ras1) oncogene homolog
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Alternates between an inactive form bound to GDP and an active form bound to GTP. Activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) and inactivated by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0008022 protein C-terminus binding IPI 9219684
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HRAS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HRAS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for HRAS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for HRAS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HRAS:

Animal Model Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HRAS Gene

Localization for HRAS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HRAS Gene

Cell membrane. Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Golgi apparatus. Golgi apparatus membrane; Lipid-anchor. Note=The active GTP-bound form is localized most strongly to membranes than the inactive GDP-bound form (By similarity). Shuttles between the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus. {ECO:0000250}.
Isoform 2: Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Note=Colocalizes with RACK1 to the perinuclear region.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for HRAS Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HRAS gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
golgi apparatus 5
nucleus 5
plasma membrane 5
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
extracellular 2
lysosome 2
mitochondrion 2
vacuole 2
peroxisome 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HRAS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for HRAS Gene

SuperPathways for HRAS Gene

Superpath Contained pathways
1 Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling
2 IL-2 Pathway
3 Translation Insulin regulation of translation
4 Development HGF signaling pathway
5 Signaling by ERBB2
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HRAS: view

Pathways by source for HRAS Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for HRAS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HRAS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade TAS --
GO:0000186 activation of MAPKK activity TAS --
GO:0002223 stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0006897 endocytosis IEA --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HRAS: view

Drugs & Compounds for HRAS Gene

(56) Drugs for HRAS Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma Target 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma Target 0
Hexane-1,6-Diol Experimental Pharma Target 0
Trifluoroethanol Experimental Pharma Target 0

(43) Additional Compounds for HRAS Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HRAS: view

Transcripts for HRAS Gene

Unigene Clusters for HRAS Gene

V-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HRAS Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b · 8c
SP2: -
SP4: -
SP5: - - -
SP6: - - -

Relevant External Links for HRAS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for HRAS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HRAS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for HRAS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (8.5), Bone (8.0), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (7.3), Monocytes (6.9), and Fetal Brain (6.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for HRAS Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HRAS Gene Hs.37003

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HRAS Gene

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HRAS: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for HRAS Gene

Orthologs for HRAS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for HRAS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HRAS 35
  • 88.54 (n)
  • 95.77 (a)
  • 74 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HRAS 35
  • 89.77 (n)
  • 97.88 (a)
K-RAS 36
  • 75 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hras 35
  • 87.65 (n)
  • 100 (a)
Hras 16
Hras 36
  • 100 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HRAS 35
  • 98.77 (n)
  • 99.47 (a)
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Hras 35
  • 88.36 (n)
  • 100 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 36
  • 70 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HRAS 35
  • 83.42 (n)
  • 97.88 (a)
HRAS1 36
  • 98 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia HRAS 36
  • 97 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia hras 35
  • 81.31 (n)
  • 96.3 (a)
Str.6315 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100151000 35
  • 82.72 (n)
  • 94.71 (a)
wufa04e08 35
hrasa 36
  • 95 (a)
hrasb 36
  • 94 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ras85D 37
  • 86 (a)
Ras85D 36
  • 77 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C08F8.7 37
  • 46 (a)
let-60 36
  • 76 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes RAS1 36
  • 35 (a)
RAS2 36
  • 34 (a)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.25522 35
Species with no ortholog for HRAS:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for HRAS Gene

Gene Tree for HRAS (if available)
Gene Tree for HRAS (if available)

Paralogs for HRAS Gene

Paralogs for HRAS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HRAS: view

Variants for HRAS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HRAS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
VAR_006836 Congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles (CMEMS)
VAR_006836 Costello syndrome (CSTLO)
VAR_006837 Congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles (CMEMS)
VAR_006837 Costello syndrome (CSTLO)
VAR_006838 Melanoma

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HRAS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv911n71 CNV Gain 21882294
dgv916n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv527327 CNV Loss 19592680
dgv918n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv182e199 CNV Deletion 23128226
dgv920n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv921n71 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv922n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv469923 CNV Loss 18288195
dgv931n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv896532 CNV Gain 21882294
essv23843 CNV CNV 17122850
dgv933n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv467634 CNV Loss 19166990
nsv896544 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv896545 CNV Loss 21882294
dgv934n71 CNV Loss 21882294
nsv896548 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for HRAS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 22.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.18; 4.10% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HRAS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HRAS Gene

Disorders for HRAS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(106) MalaCards diseases for HRAS Gene - From: OMIM, GeneTests, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
costello syndrome
  • congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles
schimmelpenning-feuerstein-mims syndrome, somatic mosaic
  • ss
melanocytic nevus syndrome, congenital, somatic
  • spitz nevus or nevus spilus, somatic
linear nevus sebaceus syndrome
  • nevus sebaceus of jadassohn
phakomatosis pigmentokeratotica
  • phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search HRAS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Bladder cancer (BLC) [MIM:109800]: A malignancy originating in tissues of the urinary bladder. It often presents with multiple tumors appearing at different times and at different sites in the bladder. Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas that begin in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder. Other types of bladder cancer include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Bladder cancer is a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental influences. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:6298635, ECO:0000269 PubMed:6844927}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles (CMEMS) [MIM:218040]: Variant of Costello syndrome. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17412879}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Costello syndrome (CSTLO) [MIM:218040]: A rare condition characterized by prenatally increased growth, postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation, distinctive facial appearance, cardiovascular abnormalities (typically pulmonic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and/or atrial tachycardia), tumor predisposition, skin and musculoskeletal abnormalities. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16170316, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16329078, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16443854, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17054105, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18039947, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18247425, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19995790}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) [MIM:607464]: A rare type of thyroid cancer accounting for only about 3-10% of all differentiated thyroid cancers. These neoplasms are considered a variant of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid and are referred to as follicular carcinoma, oxyphilic type. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12727991}. Note=Disease susceptibility is associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Note=Mutations which change positions 12, 13 or 61 activate the potential of HRAS to transform cultured cells and are implicated in a variety of human tumors. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:3670300}.
  • Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome (SFM) [MIM:163200]: A disease characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects. Many oral manifestations have been reported, not only including hypoplastic and malformed teeth, and mucosal papillomatosis, but also ankyloglossia, hemihyperplastic tongue, intraoral nevus, giant cell granuloma, ameloblastoma, bone cysts, follicular cysts, oligodontia, and odontodysplasia. Sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko and these can continue as linear intraoral lesions, as in mucosal papillomatosis. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:22683711}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Relevant External Links for HRAS

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Tumor Gene Database (TGDB):
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with HRAS: view

No data available for Genatlas for HRAS Gene

Publications for HRAS Gene

  1. Cognitive profile of disorders associated with dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK signaling cascade. (PMID: 19133693) Cesarini L. … Zampino G. (Am. J. Med. Genet. A 2009) 3 48 67
  2. Absence of BRAF, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS mutations, and RET/PTC gene rearrangements distinguishes dominant nodules in Hashimoto thyroiditis from papillary thyroid carcinomas. (PMID: 20012784) Sadow P.M. … NosAc V. (Endocr. Pathol. 2010) 3 23
  3. BRAF, NRAS and HRAS mutations in spitzoid tumours and their possible pathogenetic significance. (PMID: 19438459) Da Forno P.D. … Saldanha G. (Br. J. Dermatol. 2009) 3 23
  4. Sorafenib inhibits non-small cell lung cancer cell growth by targeting B-RAF in KRAS wild-type cells and C-RAF in KRAS mutant cells. (PMID: 19638574) Takezawa K. … Nakagawa K. (Cancer Res. 2009) 3 23
  5. Mutation analysis in Costello syndrome: functional and structural characterization of the HRAS p.Lys117Arg mutation. (PMID: 17979197) Denayer E. … Legius E. (Hum. Mutat. 2008) 3 23

Products for HRAS Gene

Sources for HRAS Gene