Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for HMGB2 Gene

Aliases for HMGB2 Gene

  • High Mobility Group Box 2 2 3 5
  • High-Mobility Group (Nonhistone Chromosomal) Protein 2 2 3
  • High Mobility Group Protein 2 3 4
  • High-Mobility Group Box 2 2 3
  • HMG-2 3 4
  • HMG2 3 4

External Ids for HMGB2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for HMGB2 Gene

  • HMG2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for HMGB2 Gene

  • GC04M175172
  • GC04M174790
  • GC04M174948
  • GC04M174627
  • GC04M174489
  • GC04M174252
  • GC04M170000

Summaries for HMGB2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for HMGB2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the non-histone chromosomal high mobility group protein family. The proteins of this family are chromatin-associated and ubiquitously distributed in the nucleus of higher eukaryotic cells. In vitro studies have demonstrated that this protein is able to efficiently bend DNA and form DNA circles. These studies suggest a role in facilitating cooperative interactions between cis-acting proteins by promoting DNA flexibility. This protein was also reported to be involved in the final ligation step in DNA end-joining processes of DNA double-strand breaks repair and V(D)J recombination. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for HMGB2 Gene

HMGB2 (High Mobility Group Box 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are RB in Cancer and Apoptotic cleavage of cellular proteins. GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and chromatin binding. An important paralog of this gene is HMGB1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HMGB2 Gene

  • Multifunctional protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. May act in a redox sensitive manner. In the nucleus is an abundant chromatin-associated non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and V(D)J recombination and probably other processes. Binds DNA with a preference to non-canonical DNA structures such as single-stranded DNA. Can bent DNA and enhance DNA flexibility by looping thus providing a mechanism to promote activities on various gene promoters by enhancing transcription factor binding and/or bringing distant regulatory sequences into close proximity (PubMed:7797075, PubMed:11909973, PubMed:19522541, PubMed:18413230, PubMed:19965638, PubMed:20123072). Involved in V(D)J recombination by acting as a cofactor of the RAG complex: acts by stimulating cleavage and RAG protein binding at the 23 bp spacer of conserved recombination signal sequences (RSS) (By similarity). Proposed to be involved in the innate immune response to nucleic acids by acting as a promiscuous immunogenic DNA/RNA sensor which cooperates with subsequent discriminative sensing by specific pattern recognition receptors (By similarity). In the extracellular compartment acts as a chemokine. Promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells implicating AGER/RAGE (PubMed:19811285). Has antimicrobial activity in gastrointestinal epithelial tissues (PubMed:23877675). Involved in inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus coupled with proinflammatory activity (By similarity). Involved in modulation of neurogenesis probably by regulation of neural stem proliferation (By similarity). Involved in articular cartilage surface maintenance implicating LEF1 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for HMGB2 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for HMGB2 Gene

Genomics for HMGB2 Gene

Regulatory Elements for HMGB2 Gene

Promoters for HMGB2 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around HMGB2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for HMGB2 Gene

Chromosome:
4
Start:
173,331,376 bp from pter
End:
173,335,125 bp from pter
Size:
3,750 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for HMGB2 Gene

Genes around HMGB2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
HMGB2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for HMGB2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for HMGB2 Gene

Proteins for HMGB2 Gene

  • Protein details for HMGB2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P26583-HMGB2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    High mobility group protein B2
    Protein Accession:
    P26583
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R4K8
    • D3DP37
    • Q5U072

    Protein attributes for HMGB2 Gene

    Size:
    209 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    24034 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with POU2F2, POU2F1 and POU3F1 (By similarity). Component of the RAG complex composed of core components RAG1 and RAG2, and associated component HMGB1 or HMGB2 (By similarity). Component of the SET complex, composed of at least ANP32A, APEX1, HMGB2, NME1, SET and TREX1. Directly interacts with SET (PubMed:11909973). Interacts with LEF1 (By similarity).

neXtProt entry for HMGB2 Gene

Proteomics data for HMGB2 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for HMGB2 Gene

  • Acetylation enhances nucleosome binding and chromation remodeling activity.
  • Reduction/oxidation of cysteine residues Cys-23, Cys-45 and Cys-106 and a possible intramolecular disulfide bond involving Cys-23 and Cys-45 give rise to different redox forms with specific functional activities in various cellular compartments: 1- fully reduced HMGB2 (HMGB2C23hC45hC106h), 2- disulfide HMGB2 (HMGB2C23-C45C106h) and 3- sulfonyl HMGB2 (HMGB2C23soC45soC106so).
  • Ubiquitination at Lys 147
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for HMGB2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Cell Signaling Technology (CST) Antibodies for HMGB2 (HMGB2)
  • Cloud-Clone Corp. Antibodies for HMGB2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for HMGB2 Gene

Domains & Families for HMGB2 Gene

Gene Families for HMGB2 Gene

Protein Domains for HMGB2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for HMGB2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P26583

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

HMGB2_HUMAN :
  • Both, HMG box 1 and HMG box 2, show antimicrobial activity.
  • Belongs to the HMGB family.
Domain:
  • Both, HMG box 1 and HMG box 2, show antimicrobial activity.
  • Contains 2 HMG box DNA-binding domains.
Family:
  • Belongs to the HMGB family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with HMGB2: view

Function for HMGB2 Gene

Molecular function for HMGB2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Multifunctional protein with various roles in different cellular compartments. May act in a redox sensitive manner. In the nucleus is an abundant chromatin-associated non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling and V(D)J recombination and probably other processes. Binds DNA with a preference to non-canonical DNA structures such as single-stranded DNA. Can bent DNA and enhance DNA flexibility by looping thus providing a mechanism to promote activities on various gene promoters by enhancing transcription factor binding and/or bringing distant regulatory sequences into close proximity (PubMed:7797075, PubMed:11909973, PubMed:19522541, PubMed:18413230, PubMed:19965638, PubMed:20123072). Involved in V(D)J recombination by acting as a cofactor of the RAG complex: acts by stimulating cleavage and RAG protein binding at the 23 bp spacer of conserved recombination signal sequences (RSS) (By similarity). Proposed to be involved in the innate immune response to nucleic acids by acting as a promiscuous immunogenic DNA/RNA sensor which cooperates with subsequent discriminative sensing by specific pattern recognition receptors (By similarity). In the extracellular compartment acts as a chemokine. Promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells implicating AGER/RAGE (PubMed:19811285). Has antimicrobial activity in gastrointestinal epithelial tissues (PubMed:23877675). Involved in inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus coupled with proinflammatory activity (By similarity). Involved in modulation of neurogenesis probably by regulation of neural stem proliferation (By similarity). Involved in articular cartilage surface maintenance implicating LEF1 and the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway (By similarity).

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for HMGB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001158 enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding ISS --
GO:0003684 damaged DNA binding IDA 8226934
GO:0003697 single-stranded DNA binding ISS --
GO:0003700 transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding IDA 19223331
GO:0050786 RAGE receptor binding IGI 19811285
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HMGB2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with HMGB2: view

Animal Models for HMGB2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for HMGB2:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for HMGB2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target HMGB2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for HMGB2 Gene

Localization for HMGB2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HMGB2 Gene

Nucleus. Chromosome. Cytoplasm. Secreted. Note=In basal state predominantly nuclear. {ECO:0000305}.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for HMGB2 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for HMGB2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
endoplasmic reticulum 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for HMGB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000793 condensed chromosome IDA 12925773
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HMGB2: view

Pathways & Interactions for HMGB2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with HMGB2: view

Pathways by source for HMGB2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for HMGB2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002437 inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus ISS --
GO:0006309 apoptotic DNA fragmentation TAS --
GO:0006355 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IEA --
GO:0006357 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA 7797075
GO:0006915 apoptotic process TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with HMGB2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for HMGB2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for HMGB2 Gene

(3) Drugs for HMGB2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with HMGB2: view

Transcripts for HMGB2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for HMGB2 Gene

High mobility group box 2:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for HMGB2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e · 1f ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d · 3e ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6a · 6b · 6c
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP7: -
SP8: - - -
SP9:
SP10: - - - -

Relevant External Links for HMGB2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
HMGB2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
HMGB2

Expression for HMGB2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for HMGB2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for HMGB2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for HMGB2 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for HMGB2 Gene Hs.434953

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for HMGB2 Gene

P26583-HMGB2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed in gastric and intestinal tissues (at protein level).
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with HMGB2: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for HMGB2 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Protein differential expression in normal tissues for HMGB2 Gene

Orthologs for HMGB2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for HMGB2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia HMGB2 35
  • 91.07 (n)
  • 100 (a)
-- 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToMany
HMGB2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToMany
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia HMGB2 35
  • 94.65 (n)
  • 100 (a)
HMGB2 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Hmgb2 35
  • 90.55 (n)
  • 98.4 (a)
Hmgb2 16
Hmgb2 36
  • 97 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia HMGB2 35
  • 99.84 (n)
  • 100 (a)
HMGB2 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia HMGB2 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia HMGB2 36
  • 52 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves HMGB2 35
  • 83.96 (n)
  • 92.51 (a)
HMGB2 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia HMGB2 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii hmgb2a 35
  • 76.06 (n)
  • 79.56 (a)
hmgb2a 36
  • 77 (a)
OneToOne
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000005 35
  • 59.24 (n)
  • 57.14 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Dsp1 35
  • 58.54 (n)
  • 56.25 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea hmg-1.2 35
  • 51.1 (n)
  • 43.11 (a)
Species with no ortholog for HMGB2:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for HMGB2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for HMGB2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for HMGB2 (if available)

Paralogs for HMGB2 Gene

Paralogs for HMGB2 Gene

(9) SIMAP similar genes for HMGB2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with HMGB2: view

Variants for HMGB2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for HMGB2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs17849374 -- 173,332,124(+) TTCTT(A/C/T)TTCCT reference, missense, stop-gained
rs73872570 -- 173,332,272(+) CCGGT(A/G)TCATT intron-variant
rs73005353 -- 173,332,027(+) CAAAA(C/T)AATTG utr-variant-3-prime
rs73005356 -- 173,332,271(+) TCCGG(A/T)ATCAT intron-variant
rs73005357 -- 173,332,496(+) TCCCT(C/G)CTGTA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for HMGB2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv4610 CNV Loss 18451855

Variation tolerance for HMGB2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 44.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.92; 19.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for HMGB2 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
HMGB2

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for HMGB2 Gene

Disorders for HMGB2 Gene

Relevant External Links for HMGB2

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
HMGB2
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
HMGB2
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
HMGB2

No disorders were found for HMGB2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for HMGB2 Gene

Publications for HMGB2 Gene

  1. Sequence of human HMG2 cDNA. (PMID: 1754403) Majumdar A. … Seidman M.M. (Nucleic Acids Res. 1991) 2 3 4 67
  2. HMGB1 and HMGB2 proteins up-regulate cellular expression of human topoisomerase IIalpha. (PMID: 19223331) Stros M. … PospA-silovA! S. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2009) 3 23
  3. Conformational difference in HMGB1 proteins of human neutrophils and lymphocytes revealed by epitope mapping of a monoclonal antibody. (PMID: 15496585) Ito I. … Yoshida M. (J. Biochem. 2004) 3 23
  4. HMGB1 and HMGB2 cell-specifically down-regulate the p53- and p73-dependent sequence-specific transactivation from the human Bax gene promoter. (PMID: 11748232) Stros M. … Nakagawara A. (J. Biol. Chem. 2002) 3 23
  5. High-mobility group protein 2 may be involved in the locus control region regulation of the beta-globin gene cluster. (PMID: 12555809) Lv X. … Liang C.C. (Biochem. Cell Biol. 2002) 3 23

Products for HMGB2 Gene

Sources for HMGB2 Gene

Back to Top

Content