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Aliases for GSTM4 Gene

Aliases for GSTM4 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 4 2 3 5
  • Glutathione S-Transferase M4 2 3
  • GST Class-Mu 4 3 4
  • EC 4 63
  • GST-Mu2 3 4
  • GSTM4-4 3 4
  • Testis Tissue Sperm-Binding Protein Li 60n 3
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase M4 3
  • Glutathione S-Aralkyltransferase M4 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase M4 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase M4 3
  • GTS-Mu2 3
  • GTM4 3

External Ids for GSTM4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTM4 Gene

  • GC01P110677
  • GC01P109128
  • GC01P109300
  • GC01P109497
  • GC01P109910
  • GC01P110000
  • GC01P110198
  • GC01P108086

Summaries for GSTM4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTM4 Gene

  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. Diversification of these genes has occurred in regions encoding substrate-binding domains, as well as in tissue expression patterns, to accommodate an increasing number of foreign compounds. Multiple transcript variants, each encoding a distinct protein isoform, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSTM4 Gene

GSTM4 (Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSTM4 include Tinea Pedis. Among its related pathways are Phase II conjugation and Glutathione metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and glutathione transferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GSTM5.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM4 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Active on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.

Gene Wiki entry for GSTM4 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSTM4 Gene

Genomics for GSTM4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GSTM4 Gene

Enhancers for GSTM4 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GSTM4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GSTM4 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GSTM4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GSTM4 Gene

109,656,076 bp from pter
109,674,836 bp from pter
18,761 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GSTM4 Gene

Genes around GSTM4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSTM4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSTM4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTM4 Gene

Proteins for GSTM4 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTM4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase Mu 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K765
    • Q05465
    • Q32NC1
    • Q4JNT8
    • Q6FH87

    Protein attributes for GSTM4 Gene

    218 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25561 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTM4 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSTM4 Gene


neXtProt entry for GSTM4 Gene

Proteomics data for GSTM4 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GSTM4 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GSTM4 Gene

Domains & Families for GSTM4 Gene

Gene Families for GSTM4 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTM4 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Contains 1 GST N-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Mu family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTM4: view

Function for GSTM4 Gene

Molecular function for GSTM4 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione-S-transferase 4,mu class
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Active on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTM4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA,IPI 25416956
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IPI 8373352
GO:0043295 glutathione binding IDA 8373352
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM4: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTM4: view

Animal Model Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSTM4 Gene

Localization for GSTM4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM4 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GSTM4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTM4 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTM4 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GSTM4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTM4: view

Pathways by source for GSTM4 Gene

Interacting Proteins for GSTM4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process TAS --
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0042178 xenobiotic catabolic process IDA 8373352
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTM4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSTM4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSTM4 Gene

(7) Drugs for GSTM4 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved Nutra Target 0
1-Hydroxy-2-S-Glutathionyl-3-Para-Nitrophenoxy-Propane Experimental Pharma Target 0
Gamma-Glutamyl[S-(2-Iodobenzyl)Cysteinyl]Glycine Experimental Pharma Target 0
Glutathione Sulfonic Acid Experimental Pharma Target 0
S-Hexylglutathione Experimental Pharma Target 0

(40) Additional Compounds for GSTM4 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTM4: view

Transcripts for GSTM4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSTM4 Gene

Glutathione S-transferase mu 4:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTM4 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GSTM4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GSTM4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GSTM4 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSTM4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver, secretome (21.2) and Testis (7.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GSTM4 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTM4 Gene Hs.348387

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTM4 Gene

Tissue specificity: Expressed in a wide variety of tissues.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSTM4: view

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Protein tissue co-expression partners for GSTM4 Gene

Orthologs for GSTM4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTM4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LOC615514 35
  • 84.56 (n)
  • 81.19 (a)
-- 36
  • 76 (a)
GSTM1 36
  • 81 (a)
GSTM1 36
  • 82 (a)
GSTM2 36
  • 80 (a)
GSTM4 36
  • 82 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GSTM1 35
  • 84.1 (n)
  • 80.28 (a)
-- 36
  • 78 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gstm4 35
  • 85.47 (n)
  • 87.16 (a)
Gstm4 16
Gm4845 36
  • 78 (a)
Gm6665 36
  • 78 (a)
Gstm1 36
  • 72 (a)
Gstm2 36
  • 81 (a)
Gstm3 36
  • 74 (a)
Gstm4 36
  • 87 (a)
Gstm6 36
  • 75 (a)
Gstm7 36
  • 79 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSTM4 35
  • 99.39 (n)
  • 99.08 (a)
GSTM4 36
  • 99 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gstm4 35
  • 86.09 (n)
  • 88.53 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 70 (a)
-- 36
  • 71 (a)
-- 36
  • 69 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gstm 36
  • 64 (a)
gstm3 36
  • 63 (a)
zgc:173994 36
  • 65 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gst-1 36
  • 30 (a)
gst-23 36
  • 30 (a)
gst-25 36
  • 26 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 28 (a)
-- 36
  • 40 (a)
-- 36
  • 43 (a)
-- 36
  • 39 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GSTM4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTM4 Gene

Gene Tree for GSTM4 (if available)
Gene Tree for GSTM4 (if available)

Paralogs for GSTM4 Gene

Paralogs for GSTM4 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GSTM4 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTM4: view

Variants for GSTM4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTM4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs3211190 - 109,656,393(+) TCATG(C/T)CCATG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense, utr-variant-5-prime
rs17838158 - 109,659,022(+) CCTCG(C/T)CTATG nc-transcript-variant, reference, missense
VAR_049487 -
VAR_049488 -
VAR_049489 -

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTM4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv510951 CNV Complex 20534489
nsv2299 CNV Loss 18451855
nsv872142 CNV Loss 21882294
esv25172 CNV Gain+Loss 19812545

Variation tolerance for GSTM4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 92.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.54; 29.79% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GSTM4 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTM4 Gene

Disorders for GSTM4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GSTM4 Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
tinea pedis
  • athlete's foot
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSTM4 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GSTM4

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTM4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTM4 Gene

Publications for GSTM4 Gene

  1. Isolation and analysis of the gene and cDNA for a human Mu class glutathione S-transferase, GSTM4. (PMID: 8349586) Comstock K.E. … Henner W.D. (J. Biol. Chem. 1993) 3 4 23 67
  2. Identification of mu-class glutathione transferases M2-2 and M3-3 as cytosolic prostaglandin E synthases in the human brain. (PMID: 10905636) Beuckmann C.T. … Hayaishi O. (Neurochem. Res. 2000) 3 25 26
  3. GSTM4 is a microsatellite-containing EWS/FLI target involved in Ewing's sarcoma oncogenesis and therapeutic resistance. (PMID: 19718047) Luo W. … Lessnick S.L. (Oncogene 2009) 3 23
  4. Screening for inter-individual splicing differences in human GSTM4 and the discovery of a single nucleotide substitution related to the tandem skipping of two exons. (PMID: 16854533) Denson J. … Zhang J. (Gene 2006) 3 23
  5. Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. (PMID: 17016423) Imming P. … Meyer A. (Nat Rev Drug Discov 2006) 25 26

Products for GSTM4 Gene

Sources for GSTM4 Gene