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Aliases for GSTA4 Gene

Aliases for GSTA4 Gene

  • Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 4 2 3 5
  • Glutathione S-Transferase A4-4 3 4
  • GST Class-Alpha Member 4 3 4
  • EC 2.5.1.18 4 63
  • S-(Hydroxyalkyl)Glutathione Lyase A4 3
  • Glutathione S-Aralkyltransferase A4 3
  • Glutathione S-Alkyltransferase A4 3
  • Glutathione S-Aryltransferase A4 3
  • Glutathione S-Transferase A4 2
  • Glutathione Transferase A4-4 3
  • GSTA4-4 3
  • GTA4 3

External Ids for GSTA4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSTA4 Gene

  • GC06M052844
  • GC06M052889
  • GC06M052674
  • GC06M052842

Summaries for GSTA4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSTA4 Gene

  • Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes are involved in cellular defense against toxic, carcinogenic, and pharmacologically active electrophilic compounds. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-tranferase belonging to the alpha class. The alpha class genes, which are located in a cluster on chromosome 6, are highly related and encode enzymes with glutathione peroxidase activity that function in the detoxification of lipid peroxidation products. Reactive electrophiles produced by oxidative metabolism have been linked to a number of degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cataract formation, and atherosclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GSTA4 Gene

GSTA4 (Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSTA4 include prostate leiomyosarcoma and skin carcinoma in situ. Among its related pathways are Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 and Glutathione metabolism. GO annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and glutathione transferase activity. An important paralog of this gene is GSTA1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA4 Gene

  • Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. This isozyme has a high catalytic efficiency with 4-hydroxyalkenals such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE).

Gene Wiki entry for GSTA4 Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSTA4 Gene

Genomics for GSTA4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GSTA4 Gene

Enhancers for GSTA4 Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GSTA4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GSTA4 Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GSTA4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GSTA4 Gene

Chromosome:
6
Start:
52,977,948 bp from pter
End:
52,995,380 bp from pter
Size:
17,433 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GSTA4 Gene

Genes around GSTA4 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSTA4 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSTA4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSTA4 Gene

Proteins for GSTA4 Gene

  • Protein details for GSTA4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    O15217-GSTA4_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione S-transferase A4
    Protein Accession:
    O15217
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RD15
    • Q5T7Q8
    • Q6P4G1
    • Q9BX18
    • Q9H414

    Protein attributes for GSTA4 Gene

    Size:
    222 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25704 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSTA4 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSTA4 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GSTA4 Gene

Proteomics data for GSTA4 Gene at MOPED

Selected DME Specific Peptides for GSTA4 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GSTA4 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 127 and Lys 138
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for GSTA4 Gene

Antibody Products

Domains & Families for GSTA4 Gene

Gene Families for GSTA4 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSTA4 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

O15217

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GSTA4_HUMAN :
  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Alpha family.
Domain:
  • Contains 1 GST C-terminal domain.
  • Contains 1 GST N-terminal domain.
Family:
  • Belongs to the GST superfamily. Alpha family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSTA4: view

Function for GSTA4 Gene

Molecular function for GSTA4 Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione S-transferase,alpha 4,ubiquitously expressed
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. This isozyme has a high catalytic efficiency with 4-hydroxyalkenals such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSTA4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSTA4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IEA,IPI 25416956
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IPI 10329152
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA4: view

Phenotypes for GSTA4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSTA4: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GSTA4

miRNA for GSTA4 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GSTA4

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GSTA4 Gene

Localization for GSTA4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA4 Gene

Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GSTA4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSTA4 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 3
nucleus 3
cytoskeleton 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
extracellular 2
golgi apparatus 2
lysosome 2
peroxisome 2
plasma membrane 2
vacuole 2
chloroplast 1

No data available for Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSTA4 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GSTA4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSTA4: view

Pathways by source for GSTA4 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSTA4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006805 xenobiotic metabolic process IDA,TAS 10329152
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSTA4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSTA4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSTA4 Gene

(4) Drugs for GSTA4 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Glutathione Approved Nutra Target 0
LB42708 Pharma Selective FTase inhibitor 0
Lonafarnib Pharma Ftase inhibitor,potent and selective 0
Trichloroethylene Pharma 5

(43) Additional Compounds for GSTA4 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
4-Hydroxynonenal
  • 4-Hydroxy-2,3-nonenal
  • 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal
  • 4-Hydroxynon-2-enal
  • 4-Hydroxynonenal
  • trans-4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal
75899-68-2
(1R)-Glutathionyl-(2R)-hydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene
(1R)-Hydroxy-(2R)-glutathionyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene
(1S)-Hydroxy-(2S)-glutathionyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene
(1S,2R)-Naphthalene 1,2-oxide

(2) ApexBio Compounds for GSTA4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
LB42708 Selective FTase inhibitor 226929-39-1
Lonafarnib Ftase inhibitor,potent and selective 193275-84-2
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSTA4: view

Transcripts for GSTA4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSTA4 Gene

Glutathione S-transferase alpha 4:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSTA4 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d · 1e ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c · 3d ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d · 5e · 5f · 5g ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^
SP1: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - - -
SP12: - - - - - - - - -
SP13: - - - - -
SP14: - -
SP15: - - - - - - -
SP16: - - -
SP17: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP18: - - -

ExUns: 9a · 9b · 9c · 9d · 9e · 9f
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13:
SP14:
SP15:
SP16:
SP17:
SP18:

Relevant External Links for GSTA4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GSTA4
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GSTA4

Expression for GSTA4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GSTA4 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GSTA4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal Gland (x8.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSTA4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (19.9), Fetal testis (18.5), and Fetal Brain (6.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GSTA4 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSTA4 Gene Hs.485557

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSTA4 Gene

O15217-GSTA4_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed at a high level in brain, placenta, and skeletal muscle and much lower in lung and liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSTA4: view

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Protein tissue co-expression partners for GSTA4 Gene

Orthologs for GSTA4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GSTA4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSTA4 35
  • 90.39 (n)
  • 93.69 (a)
GSTA4 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GSTA4 35
  • 91.14 (n)
  • 92.79 (a)
-- 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToMany
GSTA4 36
  • 93 (a)
OneToMany
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSTA4 35
  • 99.1 (n)
  • 99.55 (a)
GSTA4 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GSTA4 36
  • 63 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gsta3 36
  • 50 (a)
ManyToMany
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GSTA4 36
  • 57 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GSTA 36
  • 59 (a)
ManyToMany
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 36
  • 62 (a)
ManyToMany
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gstal 36
  • 53 (a)
ManyToMany
zgc:173961 36
  • 53 (a)
ManyToMany
zgc:173962 36
  • 53 (a)
ManyToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F56A4.3 36
  • 22 (a)
ManyToMany
F56A4.4 36
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
gst-10 36
  • 26 (a)
ManyToMany
gst-41 36
  • 26 (a)
ManyToMany
Y45G12C.3 36
  • 25 (a)
ManyToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 41 (a)
OneToMany
Species with no ortholog for GSTA4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSTA4 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GSTA4 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GSTA4 (if available)

Paralogs for GSTA4 Gene

Paralogs for GSTA4 Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for GSTA4 Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSTA4: view

Variants for GSTA4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSTA4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs45551133 - 52,984,579(-) GACAC(C/T)GGATC reference, missense
rs4147617 - 52,982,633(-) TCCAA(A/G)CCATT reference, missense
rs4986947 -- 52,984,432(-) CAGAG(C/T)AACCA intron-variant
rs5876296 -- 52,988,284(+) ATGCT(-/A)AAAAA intron-variant
rs6904769 -- 52,982,104(+) ATCAG(C/T)AGATA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSTA4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1954e1 CNV Complex 17122850

Variation tolerance for GSTA4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 58.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.80; 16.79% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GSTA4 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GSTA4

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSTA4 Gene

Disorders for GSTA4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for GSTA4 Gene - From: DISEASES and Novoseek

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
prostate leiomyosarcoma
  • leiomyosarcoma of the prostate
skin carcinoma in situ
  • carcinoma in situ of ear
dracunculiasis
  • dracontiasis
scapuloperoneal myopathy
subepithelial mucinous corneal dystrophy
  • smcd
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSTA4 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GSTA4

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GSTA4
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GSTA4
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GSTA4
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSTA4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GSTA4 Gene

Publications for GSTA4 Gene

  1. Identification of cDNAs encoding two human alpha class glutathione transferases (GSTA3 and GSTA4) and the heterologous expression of GSTA4-4. (PMID: 9480897) Board P.G. (Biochem. J. 1998) 2 3 4 23 67
  2. Transfection of HepG2 cells with hGSTA4 provides protection against 4-hydroxynonenal-mediated oxidative injury. (PMID: 17553661) Gallagher E.P. … Gardner J.L. (Toxicol In Vitro 2007) 3 25 26
  3. Substrate specificity combined with stereopromiscuity in glutathione transferase A4-4-dependent metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal. (PMID: 20085333) Balogh L.M. … Atkins W.M. (Biochemistry 2010) 3 23
  4. Antioxidant genes, diabetes and dietary antioxidants in association with risk of pancreatic cancer. (PMID: 20097730) Tang H. … Li D. (Carcinogenesis 2010) 3 23
  5. Downregulation of adipose glutathione S-transferase A4 leads to increased protein carbonylation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. (PMID: 20150287) Curtis J.M. … Bernlohr D.A. (Diabetes 2010) 3 23

Products for GSTA4 Gene

Sources for GSTA4 Gene

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