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Aliases for GSR Gene

Aliases for GSR Gene

  • Glutathione Reductase 2 3 5
  • EC 1.8.1.7 4 63
  • GRase 3 4
  • GR 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein Li 122m 3
  • Epididymis Luminal Protein 75 3
  • HEL-S-122m 3
  • EC 1.8.1 63
  • HEL-75 3
  • GLUR 4
  • GRD1 4

External Ids for GSR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GSR Gene

  • GC08M030441
  • GC08M030989
  • GC08M030594
  • GC08M030593
  • GC08M029081
  • GC08M030535

Summaries for GSR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GSR Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. This enzyme is a homodimeric flavoprotein. It is a central enzyme of cellular antioxidant defense, and reduces oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to the sulfhydryl form GSH, which is an important cellular antioxidant. Rare mutations in this gene result in hereditary glutathione reductase deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

GeneCards Summary for GSR Gene

GSR (Glutathione Reductase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GSR include hemolytic anemia due to glutathione reductase deficiency and riboflavin deficiency. Among its related pathways are Glutathione metabolism and Insulin secretion. GO annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding. An important paralog of this gene is TXNRD3.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

  • Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.

Gene Wiki entry for GSR Gene

No data available for Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GSR Gene

Genomics for GSR Gene

Regulatory Elements for GSR Gene

Enhancers for GSR Gene
GeneHancer Identifier Score Enhancer Sources TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor Binding Sites within enhancer Other Gene Targets for Enhancer

Enhancers around GSR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Promoters for GSR Gene
Ensembl Regulatory Elements (ENSRs) TSS Distance (bp) Size (bp) Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters

ENSRs around GSR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Location for GSR Gene

Chromosome:
8
Start:
30,678,061 bp from pter
End:
30,727,969 bp from pter
Size:
49,909 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GSR Gene

Genes around GSR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GSR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GSR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GSR Gene

Proteins for GSR Gene

  • Protein details for GSR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P00390-GSHR_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Glutathione reductase, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    P00390
    Secondary Accessions:
    • C8KIL8
    • C8KIL9
    • C8KIM0
    • D3DSV3
    • Q7Z5C9
    • Q9NP63

    Protein attributes for GSR Gene

    Size:
    522 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    56257 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.
    Miscellaneous:
    • The active site is a redox-active disulfide bond.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=AAP88037.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GSR Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GSR Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GSR Gene

Proteomics data for GSR Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GSR Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys 181, Lys 300, and Lys 456
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for GSR Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GSR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P00390

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GSHR_HUMAN :
  • Each subunit can be divided into 4 domains that are consecutive along the polypeptide chain. Domains 1 and 2 bind FAD and NADPH, respectively. Domain 4 forms the interface.
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
Domain:
  • Each subunit can be divided into 4 domains that are consecutive along the polypeptide chain. Domains 1 and 2 bind FAD and NADPH, respectively. Domain 4 forms the interface.
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GSR: view

No data available for Gene Families for GSR Gene

Function for GSR Gene

Molecular function for GSR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
glutathione reductase (NADPH) FAD dependent,maintaining glutathione in the reduced state
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2 glutathione + NADP(+) = glutathione disulfide + NADPH.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Maintains high levels of reduced glutathione in the cytosol.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for GSR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016668 oxidoreductase activity, acting on a sulfur group of donors, NAD(P) as acceptor IEA --
GO:0050661 NADP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GSR: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GSR Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for GSR

miRNA for GSR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GSR

Transcription Factor Targets for GSR Gene

Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for GSR

No data available for Animal Models and HOMER Transcription for GSR Gene

Localization for GSR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

Isoform Mitochondrial: Mitochondrion.
Isoform Cytoplasmic: Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GSR Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GSR gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 5
plasma membrane 4
chloroplast 2
nucleus 2
peroxisome 2
cytoskeleton 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1
vacuole 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0009897 external side of plasma membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view

Pathways & Interactions for GSR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GSR: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GSR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000302 response to reactive oxygen species TAS --
GO:0006367 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS --
GO:0055086 nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process TAS --
GO:0098869 cellular oxidant detoxification IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GSR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GSR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GSR Gene

(93) Drugs for GSR Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Carmustine Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 211
FAD Approved Pharma Target 0
Glutathione Approved Nutra Target 0
Carboplatin Approved Pharma Antitumor agent that forms platinum-DNA adducts., Platinum 1910
Gliadel Wafer Approved February 1997 Pharma 0

(78) Additional Compounds for GSR Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
nadph
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-b-D-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • 2'-(Dihydrogen phosphate) 5'-(trihydrogen pyrophosphate) Adenosine 5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylnicotinamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate) 2'-(dihydrogen phosphate) P'-5'-ester with 1,4-dihydro-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide
  • b-NADPH
53-57-6
3-Deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulosonic acid
  • 2-KDN
  • 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononate
  • 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid
  • 2-Oxo-3-deoxy-D-glycero-galactononulosonate
  • 2-Oxo-3-deoxy-D-glycero-galactononulosonic acid
22594-61-2
Hydrogen Ion
  • Hydrogen cation
  • Hydron
  • Proton
NADP
  • Adenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate
  • b-NADP
  • b-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
  • b-TPN
  • beta-NADP
53-59-8
Oxidized glutathione
  • (2S)-2-azaniumyl-4-{[(1R)-2-{[(2R)-2-[(4S)-4-azaniumyl-4-carboxylatobutanamido]-2-[(carboxylatomethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl]disulfanyl}-1-[(carboxylatomethyl)carbamoyl]ethyl]carbamoyl}butanoate
  • Glutathione disulfide
  • GSSG
  • L(-)-Glutathione(oxidized)
  • Oxiglutatione
27025-41-8

(1) ApexBio Compounds for GSR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
N6022 GSNOR inhibitor 1208315-24-5
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GSR: view

Transcripts for GSR Gene

Unigene Clusters for GSR Gene

Glutathione reductase:
Representative Sequences:

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GSR Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12
SP1:
SP2:
SP3: - -

Relevant External Links for GSR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GSR
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GSR

Expression for GSR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GSR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GSR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lymph node (7.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MOPED, and MaxQB for GSR Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GSR Gene Hs.271510

genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GSR: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GSR Gene

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GSR Gene

Orthologs for GSR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for GSR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GSR 35
  • 87.69 (n)
  • 88.01 (a)
GSR 36
  • 83 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GSR 35
  • 98.98 (n)
  • 99.04 (a)
GSR 36
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gsr 35
  • 82.85 (n)
  • 87.07 (a)
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gsr 16
Gsr 36
  • 87 (a)
OneToOne
Gsr 35
  • 82.4 (n)
  • 86.6 (a)
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GSR 36
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
GSR 35
  • 86.83 (n)
  • 85.93 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GSR 36
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GSR 36
  • 82 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GSR 35
  • 69.98 (n)
  • 73.76 (a)
GSR 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GSR 36
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gsr 35
  • 71.76 (n)
  • 77.51 (a)
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii Dr.17468 35
gsr 36
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
gsr 35
  • 65.47 (n)
  • 68.11 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea gsr-1 35
  • 58.24 (n)
  • 60.63 (a)
gsr-1 36
  • 58 (a)
OneToOne
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AGR196W 35
  • 55.36 (n)
  • 53.57 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E24069g 35
  • 52.99 (n)
  • 51.88 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes GLR1 36
  • 49 (a)
OneToMany
GLR1 38
GLR1 35
  • 53.18 (n)
  • 53.93 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons GR 35
  • 50.11 (n)
  • 42.63 (a)
rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0163300 35
  • 48.87 (n)
  • 42.99 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU03339 35
  • 56.85 (n)
  • 56.7 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes pgr1 35
  • 54.96 (n)
  • 53.24 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 36
  • 62 (a)
OneToOne
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.12083 35
Species with no ortholog for GSR:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GSR Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GSR (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GSR (if available)

Paralogs for GSR Gene

Paralogs for GSR Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for GSR Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GSR: view

Variants for GSR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GSR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type
rs2020916 - 30,689,261(-) AGTTC(A/C)CGGTA intron-variant, reference, missense
rs8190955 - 30,708,107(-) TGAGC(C/T)GCCTG reference, missense
rs8190976 -, - 30,700,082(-) TGCCC(A/G)GGTAA reference, missense
rs8190997 - 30,696,394(-) TGATG(A/G)TACGG reference, missense
rs8191004 - 30,689,311(+) AAGGA(C/G)GTTAA intron-variant, reference, missense

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GSR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv890703 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2657353 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2671289 CNV Deletion 23128226
nsv516544 CNV Loss 19592680
nsv824585 CNV Gain 20364138

Variation tolerance for GSR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 69.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.81; 66.94% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GSR Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GSR
Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
GSR

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

Disorders for GSR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(22) MalaCards diseases for GSR Gene - From: GeneTests, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GSR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Genatlas disease for GSR Gene

hemolytic crisis

Relevant External Links for GSR

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GSR
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GSR
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GSR
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GSR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GSR Gene

Publications for GSR Gene

  1. Glutathione reductase turned into trypanothione reductase: structural analysis of an engineered change in substrate specificity. (PMID: 9174360) Stoll V.S. … Pai E.F. (Biochemistry 1997) 3 4 23 67
  2. Zinc attenuates malathion-induced depressant-like behavior and confers neuroprotection in the rat brain. (PMID: 17327255) Brocardo P.S. … Rodrigues A.L. (Toxicol. Sci. 2007) 23 25 26
  3. The glutathione reductase inhibitor carmustine induces an influx of Ca2+ in PC12 cells. (PMID: 15321730) Doroshenko N. … Doroshenko P. (Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2004) 23 25 26
  4. Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in small intestinal mucosa of children with celiac disease. (PMID: 19560448) StojiljkoviA8 V. … PajoviA8 S.B. (Clin. Biochem. 2009) 3 23
  5. Catalytic cycle of human glutathione reductase near 1 A resolution. (PMID: 18638483) Berkholz D.S. … Karplus P.A. (J. Mol. Biol. 2008) 3 23

Products for GSR Gene

Sources for GSR Gene

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