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Aliases for GRM4 Gene

Aliases for GRM4 Gene

  • Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 4 2 3
  • MGLUR4 3 4 6
  • GPRC1D 3 4
  • Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 4 3
  • MGlu4 3

External Ids for GRM4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRM4 Gene

  • GC06M033991
  • GC06M034036
  • GC06M034097
  • GC06M033731
  • GC06M034039
  • GC06M034203
  • GC06M034891
  • GC06M035230
  • GC06M035725

Summaries for GRM4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRM4 Gene

  • L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GeneCards Summary for GRM4 Gene

GRM4 (Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and CREB Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM4 Gene

  • G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.

Tocris Summary for GRM4 Gene

  • Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) group III receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes mGlu group I and mGlu group II receptors. Group III receptors are divided into four subtypes, mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8. The receptors are coupled to Gi/o which inhibits adenylyl cyclase, decreasing the formation of cAMP. mGlu group III receptors are involved in spatial learning and memory, and umami taste (mGlu4), stimulation of photoreceptors (mGlu6), long term depression (mGlu7) and presynaptic inhibition in the perforant pathway (mGlu8). The human genes for mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8 receptors have been localized to chromosomes 6 (6p21.3), 5 (5q35), 3 (3p26-p25) and 7 (7q31.3-q32.1) respectively.

Gene Wiki entry for GRM4 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRM4 Gene

Genomics for GRM4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GRM4 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GRM4 Gene

34,018,643 bp from pter
34,155,622 bp from pter
136,980 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GRM4 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GRM4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRM4 Gene

Proteins for GRM4 Gene

  • Protein details for GRM4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KVL9
    • B7Z1T9
    • B7Z1U6
    • F5GXM5
    • Q5SZ84
    • Q6ZMQ2

    Protein attributes for GRM4 Gene

    912 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    101868 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PICK1.

    Alternative splice isoforms for GRM4 Gene


neXtProt entry for GRM4 Gene

Proteomics data for GRM4 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GRM4 Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn98, Asn301, Asn454, Asn484, and Asn569
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRM4 Gene

Domains for GRM4 Gene

Gene Families for GRM4 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRM4: view

Function for GRM4 Gene

Molecular function for GRM4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001642 group III metabotropic glutamate receptor activity IBA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IMP 8738157
GO:0005516 calmodulin binding IEA --
GO:0008066 glutamate receptor activity IMP 8738157
GO:0048306 calcium-dependent protein binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM4: view

Phenotypes for GRM4 Gene

MGI mutant phenotypes for GRM4:
inferred from 2 alleles
GenomeRNAi human phenotypes for GRM4:
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRM4: view

Animal Models for GRM4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRM4:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRM4

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targeting and HOMER Transcription for GRM4 Gene

Localization for GRM4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM4 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Jensen Localization Image for GRM4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRM4 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IDA 15102938
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IDA 15102938
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane --
GO:0031410 cytoplasmic vesicle IDA 15102938
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM4: view

Pathways for GRM4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRM4: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity IDA 15102938
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
GO:0007196 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IMP 15102938
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission IEA --
GO:0007269 neurotransmitter secretion TAS 15102938
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM4: view

Compounds for GRM4 Gene

(1) Drugbank Compounds for GRM4 Gene

Compound Status Synonyms Cas Number PubChem ID Type Actions PubMed IDs
L-Glutamic Acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid
56-86-0 33032 Target nutraceutical

(5) Tocris Compounds for GRM4 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
(S)-3,4-DCPG Potent, selective mGlu8a agonist [201730-11-2]
AMN 082 dihydrochloride The first selective mGlu7 agonist [97075-46-2]
CPPG Very potent group III mGlu antagonist [183364-82-1]
L-AP4 Selective group III mGlu agonist [23052-81-5]
MMPIP hydrochloride Potent, allosteric mGlu7-selective antagonist [479077-02-6]

(1) HMDB Compounds for GRM4 Gene

Compound Synonyms Cas Number PubMed IDs
L-Glutamic acid
  • (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioate

(23) IUPHAR Ligand for GRM4 Gene

Ligand Type Action Affinity Pubmed IDs
compound 22a [PMID: 21688779] Allosteric regulator Positive 8.1
ADX88178 Allosteric regulator Positive 7.4
FP0429 Agonist Full agonist 7.4
SIB-1893 Allosteric regulator Positive 6.8
compound 1 [PMID: 22465637] Allosteric regulator Positive 6.7
VU0361737 Allosteric regulator Positive 6.6
MPEP Allosteric regulator Positive 6.6
L-AP4 Agonist Agonist 6.5
VU0400195 Allosteric regulator Positive 6.5
VU0359516 Allosteric regulator Positive 6.4
Lu AF21934 Allosteric regulator Positive 6.3
VU0001171 Allosteric regulator Positive 6.2
VU0155041 Allosteric regulator Positive 6.1
compound 11 [PMID: 20638279] Allosteric regulator Positive 6
compound 7 [PMID:20638279] Allosteric regulator Positive 6
VU0364770 Allosteric regulator Positive 6
L-SOP Agonist Agonist 5.9
VU0092145 Allosteric regulator Positive 5.7
(R,S)-4-PPG Agonist Full agonist 5.3
VU0080241 Allosteric regulator Positive 5.3
(S)-3,4-DCPG Agonist Full agonist 5.1
LY341495 Antagonist Antagonist 4.7
PHCCC Allosteric regulator Positive 4.5

(12) Novoseek inferred chemical compound relationships for GRM4 Gene

Compound -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
glutamate 81.7 69
cppg 80.8 1
quisqualate 69.4 3
phenylglycine 66.8 2
phosphoinositide 49.7 1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRM4: view

Transcripts for GRM4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GRM4 Gene

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRM4

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRM4 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^ 11a ·
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: -
SP6: - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - - - - -
SP12: -
SP14: - - - -

ExUns: 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17
SP1: - -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4: - -
SP5: - -
SP13: -

Relevant External Links for GRM4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GRM4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GRM4 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRM4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (23.2) and Brain - Cerebellum (22.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GRM4 Gene

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRM4 Gene Hs.429018

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRM4 Gene

Tissue specificity: Strongly expressed in the cerebellum. Expressed at low levels in hippocampus, hypothalamus and thalamus. No expression detected in liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expressions with GRM4: view

Expression partners for GRM4 Gene

* - Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GRM4 Gene

Orthologs for GRM4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRM4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRM4 35
  • 93.13 (n)
  • 97.91 (a)
GRM4 36
  • 85 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRM4 35
  • 93.26 (n)
  • 98.15 (a)
GRM4 36
  • 95 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grm4 35
  • 89.73 (n)
  • 96.69 (a)
Grm4 16
Grm4 36
  • 95 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grm4 35
  • 89.99 (n)
  • 97.04 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GRM4 36
  • 94 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRM4 36
  • 78 (a)
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRM4 36
  • 100 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRM4 35
  • 82.26 (n)
  • 89.29 (a)
GRM4 36
  • 88 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRM4 36
  • 86 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100491626 35
  • 70.63 (n)
  • 81.9 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.10884 35
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii grm4 35
  • 75.19 (n)
  • 81.48 (a)
grm4 36
  • 79 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG30361 37
  • 43 (a)
Glu-RA 37
  • 45 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mgl-1 37
  • 37 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GRM4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRM4 Gene

Gene Tree for GRM4 (if available)
Gene Tree for GRM4 (if available)

Paralogs for GRM4 Gene

Paralogs for GRM4 Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for GRM4 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRM4: view

Variants for GRM4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRM4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs370968 -- 34,146,338(-) CCCTA(G/T)CCTGG upstream-variant-2KB, intron-variant
rs374397 -- 34,154,858(+) GCCTC(G/T)ATTCC intron-variant
rs375979 -- 34,153,239(+) GGGAT(C/G)TGCAT intron-variant
rs382175 -- 34,140,573(+) GCCTA(G/T)AAAAT intron-variant
rs437379 -- 34,132,863(+) CCTTA(G/T)AGTGA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRM4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv6829n71 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2674236 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2731898 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2666805 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv7787 CNV Loss 19470904
esv2731899 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2731900 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2518465 CNV Deletion 19546169
nsv509129 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv511878 CNV Loss 21212237
esv2731901 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2676995 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2657235 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2542860 CNV Insertion 19546169
esv2731902 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2731903 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv885779 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2731904 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv990009 CNV Deletion 20482838
nsv885780 CNV Loss 21882294

Relevant External Links for GRM4 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM4 Gene

Disorders for GRM4 Gene

(1) University of Copenhagen DISEASES for GRM4 Gene

(5) Novoseek inferred disease relationships for GRM4 Gene

Disease -log(P) Hits PubMed IDs
myoclonic epilepsy juvenile 60.3 3
schizophrenia 0 7
colon cancer 0 3
epilepsy 0 1
tumors 0 2

Relevant External Links for GRM4

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRM4: view

No data available for MalaCards , OMIM , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GRM4 Gene

Publications for GRM4 Gene

  1. Molecular characterization and localization of human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 4. (PMID: 8738157) Makoff A. … Emson P. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1996) 2 3 4 23
  2. Group III human metabotropic glutamate receptors 4, 7 and 8: molecular cloning, functional expression, and comparison of pharmacological properties in RGT cells. (PMID: 9473604) Wu S. … Belagaje R.M. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1998) 2 3 4 23
  3. Mutation screening of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR4 (GRM4) gene in patients with schizophrenia. (PMID: 11525421) Ohtsuki T. … Arinami T. (Psychiatr. Genet. 2001) 3 4 23 48
  4. Association study of polymorphisms in the group III metabotropic glutamate receptor genes, GRM4 and GRM7, with schizophrenia. (PMID: 19351574) Shibata H. … Fukumaki Y. (Psychiatry Res 2009) 3 23 48
  5. Role of GRM4 in idiopathic generalized epilepsies analysed by genetic association and sequence analysis. (PMID: 20338729) Muhle H. … Sander T. (Epilepsy Res. 2010) 3 23 48

Products for GRM4 Gene

Sources for GRM4 Gene

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