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Aliases for GRM4 Gene

Aliases for GRM4 Gene

  • Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 4 2 3
  • GPRC1D 3 4
  • MGLUR4 3 4
  • MGlu4 3

External Ids for GRM4 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRM4 Gene

  • GC06M033991
  • GC06M034036
  • GC06M034097
  • GC06M033731
  • GC06M034039
  • GC06M034203
  • GC06M034891
  • GC06M035230
  • GC06M035725
  • GC06M034538

Summaries for GRM4 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GRM4 Gene

  • L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GeneCards Summary for GRM4 Gene

GRM4 (Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GRM4 include epilepsy, generalized, with febrile seizures plus, type 5 and schizophrenia. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and CREB Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and calcium-dependent protein binding. An important paralog of this gene is GRM1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM4 Gene

  • G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.

Tocris Summary for GRM4 Gene

  • Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) group III receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes mGlu group I and mGlu group II receptors. Group III receptors are divided into four subtypes, mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8.

Gene Wiki entry for GRM4 Gene

No data available for PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GRM4 Gene

Genomics for GRM4 Gene

Regulatory Elements for GRM4 Gene

Epigenetics Products

  • DNA Methylation CpG Assay Predesigned for Pyrosequencing in human,mouse,rat

Genomic Location for GRM4 Gene

Chromosome:
6
Start:
34,018,643 bp from pter
End:
34,155,622 bp from pter
Size:
136,980 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for GRM4 Gene

UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track
Cytogenetic band:
Genomic Location for GRM4 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GRM4 Gene

Proteins for GRM4 Gene

  • Protein details for GRM4 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q14833-GRM4_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4
    Protein Accession:
    Q14833
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KVL9
    • B7Z1T9
    • B7Z1U6
    • F5GXM5
    • Q5SZ84
    • Q6ZMQ2

    Protein attributes for GRM4 Gene

    Size:
    912 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    101868 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PICK1.

    Alternative splice isoforms for GRM4 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for GRM4 Gene

Proteomics data for GRM4 Gene at MOPED

Post-translational modifications for GRM4 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GRM4 Gene

Domains & Families for GRM4 Gene

Gene Families for GRM4 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q14833

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

GRM4_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GRM4: view

Function for GRM4 Gene

Molecular function for GRM4 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GRM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001642 group III metabotropic glutamate receptor activity IBA --
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IMP 8738157
GO:0008066 glutamate receptor activity IMP 8738157
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM4: view

Phenotypes for GRM4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GRM4: view

Animal Models for GRM4 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GRM4:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for GRM4 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GRM4

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRM4

In Situ Assay Products

Flow Cytometry Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GRM4 Gene

Localization for GRM4 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM4 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Jensen Localization Image for GRM4 Gene COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GRM4 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GRM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IDA 15102938
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IDA 15102938
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane --
GO:0031410 cytoplasmic vesicle IDA 15102938
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM4: view

Pathways & Interactions for GRM4 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GRM4: view

PCR Array Products

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GRM4 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity IDA 15102938
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway --
GO:0007196 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled glutamate receptor signaling pathway IMP 15102938
GO:0007268 synaptic transmission TAS 8738157
GO:0007269 neurotransmitter secretion TAS 15102938
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GRM4: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GRM4 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GRM4 Gene

(31) Drugs for GRM4 Gene - From: NovoSeek, IUPHAR, DGIdb, Tocris, HMDB, and DrugBank

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ganciclovir Approved, Investigational Pharma 139
cyclic amp Experimental Pharma 0
Quisqualate Experimental Pharma 0
L-AP4 Pharma Agonist Selective group III mGlu agonist 0
(<i>R,S</i>)-4-PPG Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 0

(11) Additional Compounds for GRM4 Gene - From: IUPHAR, Tocris, and NovoSeek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
L-SOP
Agonist
(RS)-PPG
120667-15-4
ACPT-I
194918-76-8
MSPG
169209-64-7
O-Phospho-L-serine
407-41-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GRM4: view

Transcripts for GRM4 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GRM4 Gene

Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4:
Representative Sequences:

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Predesigned siRNA for gene silencing in human,mouse,rat for GRM4

Flow Cytometry Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GRM4 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^ 11a ·
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: -
SP6: - - - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP9: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP10: - - - - - - - - -
SP11: - - - - - - - - - -
SP12: -
SP13:
SP14: - - - -
SP15:

ExUns: 11b ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17
SP1: - -
SP2: - -
SP3: -
SP4: - -
SP5: - -
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:
SP12:
SP13: -
SP14:
SP15:

Relevant External Links for GRM4 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
GRM4
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
GRM4

Expression for GRM4 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues for GRM4 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GRM4 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x23.2) and Brain - Cerebellum (x22.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GRM4 Gene



SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GRM4 Gene Hs.429018

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GRM4 Gene

Q14833-GRM4_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Strongly expressed in the cerebellum. Expressed at low levels in hippocampus, hypothalamus and thalamus. No expression detected in liver.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GRM4: view

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GRM4 Gene

- Elite partner

Primer Products

In Situ Assay Products

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues for GRM4 Gene

Orthologs for GRM4 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for GRM4 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GRM4 35
  • 93.13 (n)
  • 97.91 (a)
GRM4 36
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GRM4 35
  • 93.26 (n)
  • 98.15 (a)
GRM4 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Grm4 35
  • 89.73 (n)
  • 96.69 (a)
Grm4 16
Grm4 36
  • 95 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Grm4 35
  • 89.99 (n)
  • 97.04 (a)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GRM4 36
  • 94 (a)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GRM4 36
  • 78 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GRM4 36
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GRM4 35
  • 82.26 (n)
  • 89.29 (a)
GRM4 36
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GRM4 36
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100491626 35
  • 70.63 (n)
  • 81.9 (a)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.10884 35
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii grm4 35
  • 75.19 (n)
  • 81.48 (a)
grm4 36
  • 79 (a)
OneToOne
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG30361 37
  • 43 (a)
Glu-RA 37
  • 45 (a)
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mgl-1 37
  • 37 (a)
Species with no ortholog for GRM4:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for GRM4 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for GRM4 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for GRM4 (if available)

Paralogs for GRM4 Gene

Paralogs for GRM4 Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for GRM4 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GRM4: view

Variants for GRM4 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GRM4 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Sequence Context AA Info Type MAF
rs370968 -- 34,146,338(-) CCCTA(G/T)CCTGG upstream-variant-2KB, intron-variant
rs374397 -- 34,154,858(+) GCCTC(G/T)ATTCC intron-variant
rs375979 -- 34,153,239(+) GGGAT(C/G)TGCAT intron-variant
rs382175 -- 34,140,573(+) GCCTA(G/T)AAAAT intron-variant
rs437379 -- 34,132,863(+) CCTTA(G/T)AGTGA intron-variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GRM4 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv6829n71 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2674236 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2731898 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2666805 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv7787 CNV Loss 19470904
esv2731899 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2731900 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2518465 CNV Deletion 19546169
nsv509129 CNV Insertion 20534489
nsv511878 CNV Loss 21212237
esv2731901 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2676995 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2657235 CNV Deletion 23128226
esv2542860 CNV Insertion 19546169
esv2731902 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv2731903 CNV Deletion 23290073
nsv885779 CNV Loss 21882294
esv2731904 CNV Deletion 23290073
esv990009 CNV Deletion 20482838
nsv885780 CNV Loss 21882294

Variation tolerance for GRM4 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 2.48% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.83; 34.45% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Relevant External Links for GRM4 Gene

HapMap Linkage Disequilibrium report
GRM4

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM4 Gene

Disorders for GRM4 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for GRM4 Gene - From: DISEASES, NovoSeek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
epilepsy, generalized, with febrile seizures plus, type 5
  • epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, 10
schizophrenia
  • schizophrenia 12
- elite association
Search GRM4 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Relevant External Links for GRM4

Genetic Association Database (GAD)
GRM4
Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) Navigator
GRM4
Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology:
GRM4
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GRM4: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GRM4 Gene

Publications for GRM4 Gene

  1. Group III human metabotropic glutamate receptors 4, 7 and 8: molecular cloning, functional expression, and comparison of pharmacological properties in RGT cells. (PMID: 9473604) Wu S. … Belagaje R.M. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1998) 2 23 67
  2. Molecular characterization and localization of human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 4. (PMID: 8738157) Makoff A. … Emson P. (Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 1996) 2 23 67
  3. Glutamate receptors in pediatric tumors of the central nervous system. (PMID: 20061814) Brocke K.S. … Ikonomidou C. (Cancer Biol. Ther. 2010) 23 67
  4. mGluR4 positive allosteric modulators with potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: WO09010455. (PMID: 20180624) East S.P. … Gerlach K. (Expert Opin Ther Pat 2010) 23 67
  5. Role of GRM4 in idiopathic generalized epilepsies analysed by genetic association and sequence analysis. (PMID: 20338729) Muhle H. … Sander T. (Epilepsy Res. 2010) 23 67

Products for GRM4 Gene

Sources for GRM4 Gene

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