Aliases for GRM4 Gene
External Ids for GRM4 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GRM4 Gene
L-glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspects of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. The metabotropic glutamate receptors are a family of G protein-coupled receptors, that have been divided into 3 groups on the basis of sequence homology, putative signal transduction mechanisms, and pharmacologic properties. Group I includes GRM1 and GRM5 and these receptors have been shown to activate phospholipase C. Group II includes GRM2 and GRM3 while Group III includes GRM4, GRM6, GRM7 and GRM8. Group II and III receptors are linked to the inhibition of the cyclic AMP cascade but differ in their agonist selectivities. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
GeneCards Summary for GRM4 Gene
GRM4 (Glutamate Receptor, Metabotropic 4) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and CREB Pathway. GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and glutamate receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is GRM1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GRM4 Gene
G-protein coupled receptor for glutamate. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Signaling inhibits adenylate cyclase activity.
Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) group III receptors are members of the metabotropic class of glutamate receptors, which also includes mGlu group I and mGlu group II receptors. Group III receptors are divided into four subtypes, mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8. The receptors are coupled to Gi/o which inhibits adenylyl cyclase, decreasing the formation of cAMP. mGlu group III receptors are involved in spatial learning and memory, and umami taste (mGlu4), stimulation of photoreceptors (mGlu6), long term depression (mGlu7) and presynaptic inhibition in the perforant pathway (mGlu8). The human genes for mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8 receptors have been localized to chromosomes 6 (6p21.3), 5 (5q35), 3 (3p26-p25) and 7 (7q31.3-q32.1) respectively.